Different Types of Acne, Different Treatments ? Cystic Acne Treatment

Acne can range in severity from a relatively small number of whiteheads, to a proliferation of cysts and nodules, which can be as physically painful as they are psychologically upsetting. Severe cystic acne needing cystic acne treatment can be resistant to most treatments, and in fact cystic acne treatment can produce side effects that are as upsetting as the condition itself. For the many sufferers of this kind of acne however, refusing treatment is not an option, so here are some things to be aware of before undergoing your cystic acne treatment.

The causes of cystic acne are, like other types of the condition, associated with the over production of oil by glands in the skin. There remains no definitive cure for any of the acne types, and the ways in which available treatments work is not fully understood.

Treating cystic acne can be difficult ? severe cystic acne is usually resistant to topical treatments, and some of the medications that are commonly used, such as tetracycline. Cystic acne can be extremely upsetting for the sufferer, especially cystic acne in women, and though treating the condition can be harsh, it is usually, thankfully, well worth going through. The most common tool in treating cystic acne is Accutane, or isotretinoin. Though this is a very effective treatment for severe cystic acne, it can bring unwanted side effects. Here are a few tips to help ease you through your treatment:

Accutane has an extremely drying effect, resulting in chapped lips and dry eyes. You might want to ensure that you carry an effective lip balm with you at all times during treatment, and contact lens wearers might find it more comfortable to return to wearing glasses for the duration of treatment.

Accutane can also cause muscle aches ? gentle exercise can help, but ensure that you rest regularly also.

Accutane can have adverse effects on your cholesterol levels and lead to abnormal liver enzyme production. Accutane can also give rise to feelings of depression. Report any changes in your mood or your general health to your doctor straightaway.

Accutane can have extremely damaging effects on a developing fetus, therefore you MUST NOT become pregnant while taking this drug. Ensure that you use birth control at all time during your treatment.

Cystic acne treatment can undoubtedly give rise to certain side effects, but these should all subside once treatment is complete. And for the many patients who have completed treatment, the wonderful results have been well worth it.

Find out more about Acne as well as Acne Cures and adult acne, acne skin care products, the best acne treatments and more at Peter's website, Acne All Gone.

http://medworm.com/rss/search.php?t=Acne&f=c
In The News:

Why teen girls with acne get better grades in school  QuartzIt's hard to think of many upsides to having acne. (Good if you like … surprises? The color red? Doing science experiments on your skin to make zits go away?)
Teen acne may have an upside: Better grades and more life success  TODAYNo teen wants to have acne, but those who do may find comfort in research that suggests the dreaded rite of passage is linked to some very good outcomes in ...
Study: Curbing a Skin Oil Might Help Reduce Acne  WebMDThe naturally produced oil called sebum is important to the skin's health because it helps regulate temperature and repel microbes, the researchers said. But an ...
8 Things That Might Be Causing Your Adult Acne—and How to Deal (Without Making It Worse)  Real SimpleAdult acne can stem from a number of internal and external factors. Learn eight common adult acne causes, plus the most effective treatments.
7 acne-friendly foundations that will never, ever make you break out  Well+GoodLooking for the best foundation for acne? These non-comedogenic makeup products rank at the top of the oily skin friendly list.
How a personal trainer learnt to live with cystic acne  BBC NewsEmily thinks people should be given more support to deal with the psychological impact of cystic acne.
'Acne does not define me'  BBC NewsAbigail has faced abuse from strangers because of her cystic acne but is now fighting back using social media.
How to Treat Cystic Acne - Best Cystic Acne Treatments  GoodHousekeeping.comHow to treat cystic acne and get rid of stubborn pimples. Cystic acne is the most severe type of acne, but dermatologists and aestheticians have shared the most ...
This Is What Happened When I Tried to Treat Cystic Acne With Skincare Products  VICEWhen I finally went to the doctor, he looked at the scars that dotted my face and asked, “What took you so long to come in?”
L'Oréal, Alibaba Introduce New AI Skin-Testing for Acne  AlizilaL'Oréal and Alibaba are launching the world's first artificial intelligence-powered mobile-testing application targeting acne.
A top dermatologist on the best skincare products for treating acne  Evening StandardSuffering from acne is no fun. Whether it's mild or severe, whether you're a teenager or an adult, it can crush your confidence and have a profound impact on ...
Struggling with acne or dull skin? These turmeric-based DIY masks will help  Vogue IndiaA mainstay in every Indian pantry, turmeric has just as many benefits for your skin and hair as it does for your health. This edit of DIY skin and hair masks will ...
Acne Face Map: Pimple Face Mapping  Marie ClaireThere is a theory called 'acne face mapping' that suggest the location of your acne could present the answer to what's causing it. Traditional Chinese medicine ...
The Ordinary's First Ever Face Mask Is Under $22 And Tackles Acne-Prone Skin  InStyleWhen Deciem launched their super affordable skincare line The Ordinary in 2015 they revolutionised the beauty industry. Suddenly, luxury, potent ingredients ...
Alibaba and L'Oreal bring new acne-analysing app to China  AsiaOneIn an objectively good use of artificial intelligence, Alibaba and L'Oréal have announced plans to bring a revolutionary new acne-testing app to Taobao and ...
NHS 'should not prescribe acne drug'  BBC NewsThe parents of young people who have killed themselves and patients unable to have sex are calling for the NHS to stop prescribing acne drug Roaccutane.
Curbing a skin oil might help curb acne, study suggests  Medical XpressAcne is the bane of many teens, and even some adults. Now, researchers say they might have hit on a new approach to easing the condition.
Having Acne as a Teen Might Mean Better Grades and a Higher Paying Job, According to this Study  BustleZits are one of the universe's greatest equalizers. Unless you are among the .01% of humankind to have never experienced getting one, there is really nothing ...
Here's Exactly How To Get Rid of A Pimple Overnight  ELLE.comSo you've got a pimple? Chances are the arrival coincides with a major life event. Pimples have a cruel way of popping up just before first dates, important job ...
The bane of adult acne and what to do about it  Sydney Morning HeraldHello from myself and also from the giant red spot that seems to have taken up permanent residence on my chin. It's the kind that really lingers around, ...
Clarol Silver Serum Cleared This Woman's Cystic Acne In Four Weeks  Glamour UKCharlotte Lloyd-Davies claims that £12.95 Clarol Silver Serum has cured her cystic acne, leaving her her skin feeling calmer and smoother than ever...
A paradigm shift in the treatment of acne  Dermatology Times“We all knew that increasing circulating androgens in puberty and increasing sebum production was followed by p. acnes. The inflammation came later,” Valerie ...
Medicine or Myth: Can putting sauerkraut over your face help treat acne?  SBSFermented cabbage isn't just for eating. Meet Beata who swears by a traditional homemade remedy to treat acne: just put sauerkraut on your face.
Neora™ Introduces New Product to Tackle Acne  Associated PressPress release *content* from Business Wire. The AP news staff was not involved in its creation.
Beauty bloggers with acne share incredible before and after transformations using a £9 foundation  Daily MailMake-up enthusiast Abbie Bull (pictured), from Donnington, Shropshire, praised Revolution's Conceal and Define Foundation for its high coverage and ...
Woman with cystic acne finally feels comfortable going out without makeup  Metro.co.ukAbigail Collins was bullied for her acne but after starting university, she feels more confident about going out without makeup.
This Is the $12 Trick to Quickly Heal Annoying Adult Acne Flare-Ups  Real SimpleHero Cosmetics' Mighty Patch Pimple Patches are the pimple spot treatment for adult acne that we've been looking for—and they're on Amazon.
CJ Grant with severe acne reveals her skin cleared up for good after drinking MAGGOT tea  Daily MailAustralian chef CJ Grant who suffered severe acne has claimed her skin completely cleared up within two weeks of drinking tea with maggots.
Student with severe acne refuses to date fearing men will feel catfished when they see her real face  Daily MailA student has revealed she refuses to date becase she doesn't want to be branded a catfish due to the amount of make-up she wears to conceal her cystic acne.
The Best Drugstore BB & CC Creams For Acne Prone Skin  STYLECASTEROpting for an oil-controlling and non-comodogenic formula is therefore increasingly important in the warmer months, so we've rounded up a few top-rated ...
10 Foundations That Actually Work For Acne-Prone Skin  Refinery29What does non-comedogenic actually mean? We break it down, and round up the best foundations that measure up to the label for acne-prone skin.
Nurse who was sent to hospital as her acne was so severe claims a £12.95 serum dramatically cleared up her  The SunA WOMAN who suffered from depression and failing eyesight from her acne medication claims a £12.95 serum has changed her life. Charlotte Lloyd-Davies, 25, ...
Woman, 25, who suffered cystic acne has praised serum for improving her skin in just four weeks  Daily MailCharlotte Lloyd-Davies, 25, from Shropshire, who claims she was crippled by depression and failing eye sight from acne medication has revealed she found a ...
I Tried The Ordinary's $12 Face Mask — & It's Perfect For Acne-Prone Skin  Refinery29The Ordinary's first-ever face mask, priced at $12, might just be the perfect salicylic acid treatment for acne-prone skin types.
Acne Tips: Can You Predict When You'll Get A Pimple Based On Your Period Cycle? | VOGUE India  VOGUE IndiaDon't you wish you could tell when you were most likely to get a zit, and prep your skin to prevent it so it doesn't crop up on the day of an important party?
Best supplements for spots - 1p a day capsules to naturally get rid of skin acne  ExpressSUPPLEMENTS could be used to get rid of spots and prevent acne, it's been claimed. Add these cheap capsules to your diet to treat acne, and to spot spots on ...
The Ordinary's First Face Mask Worked Wonders On My Acne-Prone Skin  Refinery29The Ordinary's first ever face mask wasn't what I was expecting, but it worked wonders to clear my blackheads.
Woman with cystic acne feared she was 'unlovable' due to scarred skin  Daily MailMadeline Roberts, 24, from Tennessee first developed cystic acne at the age of 14, and was left terrified of dating. Husband Trevor, 25, helped her embrace her ...
Campaigners urge NHS to drop Roche acne drug  pharmaphorumCampaigners are demanding that the NHS stop prescribing Roche's acne drug Roaccutane, claiming it can lead to impotence and suicide.
Energy-based options for acne  Dermatology Times“Market studies have been done that show that people will pay for [energy-based device treatments] if it's within reason,” says Michael H. Gold, M.D. (soupstock ...
The 5 Best Acne Treatments on Amazon  Elite DailyAcne is a pain, but the best acne treatments on Amazon have their fans screaming that magic is real. But just like how acne can come in lots of different forms ...
Hania Aamir isn’t letting her acne define her  Samaa Digital NewsSometimes it's hard to imagine celebrities dealing with the same acne and blemish problems as the rest of the world. After all, they have access to top-of-the-line ...
Skin positivity: How I got comfortable with my acne  BBC NewsAbbie is embracing her acne as she heads on a night out for the first time without make-up.
Over 20 Million People Use This System to Treat Their Acne  Men's JournalProactiv has been helping people treat their acne for two decades. It's helped more than 20 million people clear up their skin. And it can help you.
9 Best Moisturizers for Acne-Prone and Oily Skin 2019 - Top Rated Oil-Free Face Moisturizers for Acne  GoodHousekeeping.comEven people with oily and acne-prone skin need to use face moisturizers. Here's what to look for on a moisturizer's label, according to dermatologists from ...
‘I got my face peeled to treat my hormonal acne, and I’m impressed’  Body and Soul“You have amazing skin.” Not to brag, but I cannot tell you how many times people have told me this… but little do they know what a good concealer and ...
Briefing: Alibaba launching AI-based acne-testing service · TechNode  TechNodeDespite a cooling economy, China's beauty industry is showing no sign of slowing.
Saliva can treat acne and other bizarre ancient Indian health beliefs - Why they may be true!  Times NowAncient Indian wisdom is a treasure house of such beliefs, myths, and remedies that are known to be good for health, treat health issues and keep us safe from ...
The best body washes for acne  TODAYAs if dealing with facial acne wasn't annoying enough, body acne also has an ugly way of making its presence known, especially during the warmer months.
Pimples pay off as teens with acne 'will earn more and get better grades'  Independent.ieIt may be time to stop worrying about your teenager's acne and to start loving it.
Orange Peel Can Beat Acne Thanks To Its Skin-Loving Ingredients  Glamour UKAcne sufferers have been taking to Reddit and beauty forums to share the surprising fruit-based beauty hack - and it makes sense; orange rind is packed with ...
Common acne drug that leaves ‘patients suicidal and impotent’ should be BANNED on NHS  The SunAround 30000 people a year take Roaccutane in the UK.
All the skincare products and treatments you can use to treat acne scars  VOGUE IndiaOnce you've won the battle against active zits, there's another waiting right around the corner. We list out all the skincare comrades that can help you fight acne ...
Lili Reinhart Just Shared The Realest Selfies Of A Pimple On The Tip Of Her Nose  Women's HealthLili Reinhart shared a series of Instagram Stories Tuesday highlighting a pimple on the tip of her nose. LIli, 22, has dealt with cystic acne since the age of 12.
Acne sufferers are hailing this 'miracle in a bottle' serum for clearing up their skin  Daily MailAcne sufferers are raving over a new vitamin C enriched serum which helps to clear up scarring and spots - with one dubbing it a 'miracle in a bottle'.
Can Working Out Cause Acne? We Asked A Dermatologist To Weigh In  mindbodygreen.comThere are a lot of reasons why we have acne—and one of those reasons could involve your workout routine. Here's what this dermatologist recommends.
Get Glowing, Clear Skin — How To Find Products That Won't Clog Pores  mindbodygreen.comWe break down the skin care term "noncomedogenic"—and include every tip you might need to know to get clear skin.
Women are praising this foundation for COMPLETELY covering their acne - and it only costs $18  Daily MailBeauty bloggers have revealed impressive photos and videos of an $18 foundation that completely covers their acne and redness - with many saying it works ...
Man gives his girlfriend acne after secretly sabotaging her vegan diet  indy100Veganism is one of the strictest and most disciplined diets around and although it might seem like a fad, it can actually be traced back thousands of years.
Acne sufferers praise Makeup Revolution’s £9 Conceal and Define foundation for camouflaging cystic spots and r  The SunBased on these incredible photos, we'll be making a quick dash to Superdrug on our lunch breaks.
I Got Filler To Reduce My Acne Scarring. Here Are The Results  Refinery29I got injectable filler to smooth out the pitted scarring left behind by my adult acne. Here are the results.
Lightstim for Wrinkles review: at-home LED anti-aging device  Business InsiderI tried the LightStim device to help reduce fine lines and wrinkles while increasing firmness and elasticity. Here's why it's worth the $250 price.
From dark spots to acne: How mobile phone addiction can hamper your skin health  The Indian ExpressWhen mobile phones get warm, they tend to interrupt the normal melanin production of your skin, causing dark spots and uneven tones in the long run.
Lower Body Mass Index in Teens Negatively Associated With Acne  Clinical AdvisorBody mass index (BMI) in teens was found to be inversely correlated with the incidence of acne, according to study results published in the Journal of the ...
Skincare brands are accused of making fake claims they can cure ACNE as a watchdog reveals pimples should be  The SunSKINCARE brands are being accused of falsely advertising their products can help with acne. Despite an Advertising Standards Agency ruling banning brands ...
Man Admits Secretly Giving His Vegan Girlfriend Dairy Caused Her Acne To Return  Plant Based News'I thought I would prove to her that the whole 'dairy gives me acne' thing is in her head'
Acne Solutions Skin Care Products  NewBeauty MagazineBest skin care products to fight blackheads, pimples and hormonal acne.
From orange peel to honey… the 8 acne remedies in your kitchen cupboards  The SunWe're all looking for that 'miracle' treatment to getting of spots... so what if it's been lurking in your kitchen all along?
The 5 Best Face Scrubs For Blackheads  BustleThe most important thing to know about blackheads is that they don't discriminate. Whether your skin is oily and acne-prone or dry and sensitive, pretty much ...
Does Exercising in Makeup Cause Acne?  LifehackerI don't wear makeup to work out, but I also don't judge—partly because the heaviest makeup I've ever seen at the gym was on a regular who was super-jacked.
This super-common smoothie ingredient has a rep for bringing on rogue breakouts  Well+GoodOnce upon a breakout, after I had grown frustrated trying every single hormonal acne remedy out there, I decided to attempt the dreaded fight-acne-from-within ...
The Bachelor's Tiffany Scanlon reveals she has cystic acne and edits it out of photos  Daily MailThe Bachelor's Tiffany Scanlon candidly confessed to editing her photos on Instagram to hide her battle with cystic acne, after suffering with the severe skin ...
Acne Studios Strips Its Perey Sneakers Down to the Basics for SS19  HYPEBEASTAfter introducing its new trail-ready Bolzter sneaker last week, Acne Studios has reached back into its vault to update its signature Perey shoe for Spring/Summer ...
Scalp Acne: What Causes It And How To Treat It  Glamour UKScalp acne is a real thing so we talk to expert trichologist to find out everything about scalp acne - why it happens, the long-term effects and how to treat it.
Get rid of back acne naturally  FeminaExperiencing an acne outbreak on your back is just the worst thing ever. It is an irritable skin problem that is tricky to treat since this is unchartered territory for the ...
Acne Vulgaris (AV) Market Analysis by Expert 2019 to 2028  Worldwide MarketAcne Vulgaris (AV) – Market Insight, Epidemiology And Market Forecast – 2028:- Acne Vulgaris (AV) Market report covers the illness review, definition, ...
Bachelor in Paradise's Tenille Favios Shares Photos and Experience of Dealing with Cystic Acne in her Early Twenties  Bigtime DailyBachelor in Paradise's Tenille Favios, who is known for her flawless complex, has revealed the bitter experience she had while dealing with serious cystic acne ...
This is the Best Ingredient for Acne and Redness — And You're Probably Not Using It  InStyleEverything you need to know about using skincare ingredient azelaic acid as acne and rosacea treatment.
Acne sufferers praise Glossier’s acid toner which ‘works wonders’ and fades spot scars in under a week  The SunPLUS the glittery millennial pink packaging will look ever so Instagrammable sitting in your bathroom.
Your Skin-Care Routine Actually Only Needs These 3 Things  SelfIt's hard to look at a pristine #shelfie full of beautiful luxury skin-care products and not think I need all of this on my face immediately. Or maybe you're someone ...
Avarelle - Easy-to-Peel Acne Covers  NewsWatchThese easy-peel acne covers can be worn for 4 to 8 hours (or overnight if needed) -either during the day underneath makeup or at night.
Student who covers acne refuses to date in case men feel catfished - Daily Star  Daily StarA STUDENT with severe acne says she refuses to date men in case they feel 'catfished'.
TEENOLOGY Announces Hair and Skin Care Product Line to Help Teens Avoid Acne Breakouts  California NewswireLOS ANGELES, Calif. /California Newswire/ — Teenagers finally have a product line that they can identify with that offers real solutions for frustrating acne ...
Study Suggests Reducing A Skin Oil Might Aid In Controlling Acne  The Market-News 24Acne is the annoyance of many teens and adults. Now, scientists state that they may have hit on a novel approach to alleviate the condition. The key lies in ...
University of Southampton receives £1.7 million to help cure acne in women  Daily EchoA SOUTHAMPTON university has received £1.7 million to launch a new trial into helping women who suffer from acne.
Beauty is...Simplicity  The StandardAcne is something I have been dealing with all my life. However, it is not as bad as before because I now understand how to deal with it better. The p.
Acne Studios Schools Us in How to Do Stripes & Prints in FW19 Lookbook  HighsnobietyAcne Studios has dropped its FW19 collection of rugby sweaters, striped crewnecks, anoraks, shorts and printed shirts. Read more on how to buy here.
Woman, 25, who made $8,000 within three weeks of launching her first beauty business  Daily MailPriscilla Haijantoni, 25, from Melbourne, made $8000 within three weeks of launching her first beauty product, Bangn Body. She is now on track to triple her ...
Lad replaces vegan girlfriend's food with dairy food... and she gets acne  Her.ieWhen people are vegans, you should generally just leave 'em to it. They're not harming anybody, they're not forcing their views on anybody, they're doing some ...
How to treat pregnancy acne?  reportshealthcare.comAcne during pregnancy is intriguingly common. For many, it possibly tends to occur during the first and second trimester. The reality of unpredictable pregnancy ...
TEENOLOGY Announces Hair and Skin Care Product Line that Helps Teens Avoid Acne Breakouts  Massachusetts NewswireLOS ANGELES, Calif., May 22, 2019 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) — Teenagers finally have a product line that they can identify with that offers real solutions for ...
The Ordinary’s first ever mask is under £10 and aids acne-prone skin  Marie Claire UKThe Ordinary has finally launched its very first face mask, and it is perfect for acne prone skin. The Ordinary Salicylic Acid Mask contains mud & clay.
Why I Never Take Advice From People With Perfect Skin  GlamourThe Internet is full of advice from people with perfect skin. Here's why I only trust people with acne.
Bye-bye, bumps! How to get rid of razor bumps for good  TODAYWhat are razor bumps and what causes them? Learn how to get rid of razor bumps fast and how to prevent razor bumps with these razor bump treatments.
Frank Bures: The multiple uses of spironolactone  Winona Daily NewsSometimes it's kind of a relief to read or hear some actual news about a medicine, instead of the sinfully costly ads and overblown sales pitches for immorally ...
Best Men's Skincare Routine - How to Build a Skin Care Regimen for Men  EsquireA solid skincare routine makes a huge difference. But some men still don't have one. That's where we come in. Whether you're a true novice or an expert looking ...
Kylie Jenner’s new walnut-based face scrub could be dangerous: experts  Global NewsThe scrub is set to hit shelves along with the rest of her new line, aptly called Kylie Skin, on May 22.
Can CBD oil get rid of acne?  Medical News TodayThere is some evidence to suggest that CBD oil can help treat acne by reducing the production of sebum and fighting bacteria on the skin. Learn more about ...
Kentucky to revisit language barring certain tattoos after backlash | TheHill  The HillKentucky officials say they are revisiting a proposal that would restrict tattoo artists from creating tattoos that cover up scars after activists complained that the ...
Amazon Recommends Some Books Based on Your Failures  The New YorkerIrving Ruan and Alex Watt imagine some humorous recommendations Amazon might make to customers based on their life failures.

Use Essential Fatty Acid To Help You Prevent or Eliminate Your Acne

To eliminate or clear your face of acne it will... Read More

More Ways to Deal With Acne

The "cures" for acne vary dependant on the type and... Read More

Acne Treatment

Acne is an annoying skin condition that affects people of... Read More

Little Addictions Can Create Big ZITS

An acne trigger is any thought, location, feeling, food, emotion,... Read More

Hormones and Adult Acne

Are you experiencing problems with hormones and adult acne? Hormones... Read More

Overnight Home Pimple Remedy

You can do several things to improve acne. There are... Read More

Acne Program ? Step 8 Vegetables to Eat and Drink

Eating and drinking vegetables is necessary for good health and... Read More

The Kill the Bacterial and Cure the Acne Myth

All life forms strategize to survive and procreate. Weeds, worms,... Read More

Achieving Clear Skin

There are many ways to achieve clear skin. If you... Read More

Acne Treatments that Work

Two of the best-known treatments for acne include phototherapy and... Read More

Acne Program ? An Introduction

Acne is the most common skin disorder. Over 10% of... Read More

Finding Acne Skin Care Products That Work For You

Each one of us is different, and nowhere is this... Read More

How to Find the Best Acne Treatments Available

Acne, which affects the majority of teenagers, and a very... Read More

How a 25 Year Old Asian Man Stumbled Upon a Sweet and Delicious Cure for Acne Permanently!

When dealing with acne, we somehow have the gut feeling... Read More

Emotionally Dealing with Acne

It is a fact that nearly 17 million people in... Read More

How to Eliminate Your Acne and HAVE FUN at the Same Time!

Have you ever wondered why we have acne and even... Read More

5 Reasons Little White Bumps Are On Your Face and How to Get Rid Of Them

Are you making these mistakes each time you spot a... Read More

Acne Blemish Laser Treatment

If you are looking to eliminate acne, cure zits and... Read More

Dairy Products and the Possible Effects Related to Acne

Continuing research into the causes of acne has brought to... Read More

Taking Isotretinoin for Acne?

Produced under the brand name Accutane, isotretinoin is a medication... Read More

Oh, No! I Have Backne! The Continuing Mystery Behind Back Acne

"Backne" is street slang for back acne. And while the... Read More

Back Acne Havoc

If you are between 10 to 40 you have great... Read More

7 Ways To Conquer Acne

Reports show that over 90 percent of all... Read More

Stop, That Little White Bump May Not Be A Zit After All

White bumps bugging you? Just because you have little white... Read More

Acne and Vitamin Supplements

For years, scientists, doctors, biologists, dermatologists, and dieticians have searched... Read More

http://medworm.com/rss/search.php?t=Acne&f=c