Dorothy Dunn and Primitive Art

The artist's of tribes of the Great Plains left their paper trail for centuries on rocks, cave walls, and buffalo robes and other animal skins. After contact with the white man the Native American artists began to use paper from the ledger books that traders used for record keeping, thus the term "ledger art".

The drawings were characteristic of the style that had persisted for centuries and culminated with the end of the proto-modern era of the Native American art movement.

It was at the end of this era and the beginning of the Modernistic era of the movement that Dorothy Dunn was teaching at the Santa Fe school. During her tenure she encouraged her students to continue the traditions of their predecessors in the "flat", or "primitive" art style. Here one can cite Dunn's unique concept of "primitive", and even more so her concept of "primitive art".

Anthropologists use the term "primitive" as a general category to describe cultures which had not achieved a certain standard (define modernity). For Dunn, a primitive was not a certain type of culture, but described individuals and objects indigenous to any, every, culture. The primitive subject was that gifted individual, or "seer" whom was able to discern the primitive objects relevant to their culture. These objects were also "primitives", and represented the signs, icons, or symbols of a culture. Thus, for Dunn, "primitive art" was the one to one relationship between the seer and the perceived set of primitive objects of their culture. Primitive was not a certain type of culture, but a certain set of variables occurring in every culture, and primitive art was an event that portrayed the values, or what was of importance in that culture. Thus, Dunn encouraged her students to carry on the tradition into the Modernist era.

Dorothy Dunn's concept of primitive art yields a definition that adequately depicts the problems and ambiguities in the usage of the term "primitive." She agrees with Boas' observation that in the broadest sense, every age has its primitives, its own interpreters and seers, and the assignment of the term primitive to these individuals is relative to the point of view based upon the knowledge of the observer. At the same time, she also cites Ralph Linton who denounces the commonly accepted connotation of the term "primitive" as assigning all primitives to the "childhood of art," but she seems to differ essentially from Linton's assertion that the "primitive" in "primitive art" is a relative term. Relational perhaps, but relative only in the sense that each culture defines its primitives according to its own set of values. The relational aspect is that primitive art occurs in every culture as an event between the seers, and that set of symbols, signs or designs which are iconic to that particular culture as its own set of primitives. The relationship is complex and is manifest in every society. This relationship defines the absolute in "primitive art." She summarizes this position in the statement that "Primitive is a relational term, conditioned by time and place, yet maintaining constant universal elements pertaining to frontiers."

Dunn notes that "Indian painting is the first art in history to have sprung, full-fledged, from the primitive into the contemporary world at a time when it was peculiarly compatible with both. Although it has won recognition as modern art, a consideration of some facts and assumptions in regard to primitive art may evaluate certain qualities of modern Indian painting which place it in a position of being old and new, primitive and contemporary." The reference to an absolute in primitive art is evident here, even though for the sake of communication she has to stumble over the common usage of the term "primitive" which she is trying to minimize.

In this regard Dunn states that the term "primitive art" calls for qualification. The qualification that Dunn employs is one that synthesizes the contrast between a diachronic and synchronic perspective of the term. In her usage of such terms as "time and place" and "frontiers" in contrasting the relative and universal aspects of primitive art she is indeed searching for a definition that would satisfy Fabian's demand for "allochronic determinations." If one were to isolate all instances of "time and place" diachronically (in linear, historical or temporal sequence) and apply them laterally, across cultural lines and the boundaries of possible worlds synchronically, and then abstract an intensive, characteristic notion of primitive as a universal concept, then one could have a definition that could be used comparatively at any given time and place, i.e. satisfying Fabian's demand for coevalence in discourse, and overcome any ethnocentricity a contemporary culture may have in its assessments and analysis of an object culture under study which lies at its frontier and depicts a different time and place.

The need for such qualification is summarized by Dunn in stating that "Anthropologists question certain implications of the expression" (primitive art) where a "consideration of tolerance" in the matter of "other civilizations" and "our own" may be comparatively based upon technical and material advancements, but overlook the fact that the lack of such advancements "might allow major emphasis upon esthetic and spiritual value." Here Dunn is to a degree once again segregating the primitive in a unique aspect, as she does in stating that "In primitive society symbolism is a special system through which ideas as images can be conveyed understandably to an individual or group," but her underlying supposition is that in every culture in every age society has its primitives; seers or interpreters who are the gifted individuals that discern and depict this special system of symbols. It is an event, a one to one relationship between the subject as a primitive interpreting the primitive as objectivity, and the event is a primal act.

In this Dunn has designated the interpreter within a culture as one who objectively identifies those elements that are the marks of that culture, and that the act is universal. While every society has its system of symbols, and certain images may be shared by diverse cultures, the same image may have different meanings cross-culturally or even have multi-references within a culture (The Zuni is a prime example). Every culture will iconize the sun and the moon, contrast the night with the day. The triangle has a range of meanings distinct in cultures as close as the Hopi and the Arapaho, or as diverse as its interpretation by the Western economist (The Greek letter Delta, signifying change). Yet, the act of the interpreter translating their culture's symbols into a communicable form is the absolute, universal, primitive act.

In this sense of the term "primitive" one is no longer referring to a category, or a term of allochronic discourse denoting temporal distance. It is not a qualifier for an object or culture, but is the object, subject, or act itself. Its sense is the act of the interpretation of symbols establishing a basis for and expediting the conveyance of intersubjective knowledge. Whether it is the interpreter within a culture translating a sign and conveying meaning to another interpreter within the culture, or an interpreter considering the system of symbols as an object language, the notion is that one is not dealing with a thing qualifiable as a primitive, but is identifying the primitive itself, and is what the logicians like to refer to as cross-identifications, or identifications of individuals across the boundaries of possible worlds, resulting in well-defined individuations or the objectivity of individuating functions.

This appears on its face to be actually quite useless. First, there is a set of objects within a culture the meaning of which is peculiar to that culture, and that particularity renders it non-informative for cross-identification with a set of particulars in another culture. The primitive act, conversely, is defined in such broad terms that it appears as nothing more than an abstraction that could not possibly produce any meaningful information. On a positive note, this sense of primitive has eliminated the temporal distancing with is denoted when used as a term of allochronic discourse, seemingly satisfying Fabian's demand for allochronic determinations (coevalance). Execution is problematic however, as the paradox of anthropological discourse displays itself when the term "primitive" is used, as Dunn often does, in the sense of temporal distancing in order to minimize or eliminate that very connotation.

By example, take another term of allochronic discourse that conveys temporal distancing. That term is "savage", or "savagery." Frank Hamilton Cushing used the term numerous times during his tenure as a participant observer at the Zuni Pueblo from 1879-1884 when reporting to his colleagues and superiors, and in various publications. In our own time he has been criticized for this as "wrong-headed" and "wrong-hearted." I hesitate to call these remarks wrong-headed or wrong-hearted, but in the very least they are incorrect, and any ethnologist/anthropologist worth their weight in salt should realize this. To summarize Fabian: Anthropological discourse about the "primitive" or the "savage" is not about people in the real world, at least not directly. First and immediately, it is about the primitive or the savage as an internal referent of a discourse or as a scientifically constituted object of a discipline. One must not confuse the logical content of a scientific language and the real world. That is, while temporal distancing creates its object for the anthropologist the synchronic of discourse projects its referent atemporally. In other words, Cushing was a scientist of the Victorian era using the scientific language of his time in order to communicate effectively with his colleagues, superiors, and general media audience. Communicative competence and valuing sociality guarantees its rationality and objectivity. As long as anthropological discourse does not confuse its own logical content with the real world then rationality is not violated by deviant utterances and the normative content of the discipline is maintained, thereby attaining rationality and objectivity through conformity.

The terms "primitive" and "savage" do pose differences, however, and is likely the reason, though not a justification for, the criticisms posed against Cushing for the use of the term. As Fabian points out in regard to the term "savage", "no amount of nominalist technicality can purge the term of its moral, aesthetic, and political connotations." It cannot be reduced to universal data.

"Primitive," on the other hand, is quite conducive to universalization. As Dunn notes, in an Indian society, there are no artists. As a medium for expression anyone may be a "creative participant in some capacity", and as such the groundwork for an inclusive base for interpretation of a communicable set of symbols is laid, providing an ontological basis of rationality. That is, the former abstract concept of primitive art as a primitive act has been provided with content. This should, to a reasonable degree, satisfy the ontologist and anthropologist alike. In the ontological sense rationality is viewed as "perspective- taking" and does not require objectivity. Objectivity requires agreement, or intersubjective validation through public reciprocal intentions, where the objectivity of claims is tied to their communicability. Objectivity becomes a "personal accomplishment" (Willard) and belongs to the anthropological sense of rationality as a social fact where forms of communication are used to express approval of someone's actions (aesthetic appreciation).

Quoting Alice Corbin Henderson, Dunn states that in an Indian society, art is "possessed in common" and "totally lacking in individualistic concept." Thus, objectivity is enjoined with intentionality as personal accomplishment without a reference to the individual. This would satisfy a pedagogic sense of rationality in that in an Indian society "the surest way to make a prayer effective is to symbolize the matter prayed for" (Bandelier). If the prayer (the art of rhetoric) was effective, then it was handed down from generation to generation and its success justified its rationality.

Dunn contrasts Indian art and contemporary art in distinguishing "modern" society where the title of the artist may well be deserved with the capacity to impress representatively, whereas to artists of primitive societies "painting does not seek primarily to portray a subject in a given place and time in a more or less representationalist manner, but rather to stress the fundamental qualities of the object or power. It is concerned with the inner functions and meanings rather than the superficial appearance of nature, and it sets forth the essential aspects of a subject?the primitive artist gives right-of-way to the basic elements in his interpretation." Dunn then cites Linton who observed that the "insistence upon accurate naturalistic representation seems childish to the primitive artist who, although he admires technical skill, feels that it is being expended for trivial ends in an amplification of the obvious."

Two worlds, side by side. The Indian artist may say of the contemporary artist that they are in forgetfulness of their origins, and the contemporary artist may refer to a child like quality of the Indian's painting. Nonetheless, to Dorothy Dunn they are both primitive art, or better said, a primitive act, and both have their reason for being. "Each aspect which characterizes Indian painting as a primitive art has its own reason for being. Likewise, certain of these same features qualify Indian painting as modern. This seeming paradox may well be in the fact that international painting, for reasons of its own, increasingly evolves forms and styles, even concepts, not unlike those long and deeply developed by Indian artists."

And so it was that Dorothy Dunn followed her inclinations towards the "primitive" and encouraged her students at the Santa Fe school to preserve the authenticity of their heritage through long established modes of interpreting the primitives.

REFERENCES:

Dunn, Dorothy. American Indian Painting of the Southwest and Plain'sArea. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1968.

Fabian, Johannes. Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object. NY: Columbia University Press, 1983.

Hintikka, Jaakko. "The Semantics of Modal Notions and the Indeterminacy of Ontology". Synthese. 21: 408-424, 1970.

Willard, Charles. A Theory of Argumentation. Tuscaloosa and London: University of Alabama Press, 1989.

Chet Staley
Copyright 2005
amerindianarts.us
All Rights Reserved

In The News:

Philosophy Club works to expand and promote student voices on campus  Northern Star OnlineDeKALB — Since its inception in the spring semester of 2018, Philosophy Club has helped students take a closer look into matters of philosophical importance, ...
Analysis: Pellegrini's positive philosophy plays out  West Ham United F.C.Had the Premier League season started on 15 September, rather than a month earlier, West Ham United would be sitting sixth in the table. The Irons have won ...
We need to address the gender disparity in philosophy  UT The Daily TexanWhen we think of gender disparities in academia, we are immediately drawn to male-dominated fields, such as many STEM majors, where women have been ...
Philosophy professor continues work on confounding problem  William & Mary NewsNoah Lemos, Leslie and Naomi Legum Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at William & Mary, talks about his years working on the pesky problem of the ...
How 'The Good Place' Made Philosophy a Pop Culture Phenomenon  TownandCountrymag.comIn an exclusive interview with Town and Country Magazine, 'The Good Place' creator Michael Schur spoke with us about writing a candy-colored fantasy about ...
School curricula to include philosophy, critical thinking  Saudi GazetteBy Nadia Al-Fawaz RIYADH — Education Minister Ahmed Al-Issa has said efforts are under way to revamp the high school curricula and include new ...
Soldier-Philosopher  The Weekly StandardIn his “Restatement on Xenophon's Hiero,” Leo Strauss, the 20th-century political philosopher credited with reviving Xenophon's status as a philosopher on par ...
Lee Hosts Shakespeare Political Science And Philosophy Symposium  The ChattanooganDr. Timothy Burns, the keynote speaker for Lee's Undergraduate Intercollegiate Political Science and Philosophy Symposium, participates in a discussion panel.
Don Garber signals changes to MLS philosophy on two major...  The AthleticIn his State of the League address, the MLS commissioner announced that the league is changing course on two long-held positions.
Wisconsin GOP's Lame-Duck Play: 'A New Philosophy of Governing'  Roll Call The Scott Walker era in Wisconsin is ending much as it began: With a controversial effort to weaken his political opponents that attracted protests and a national ...
Northeastern's next-man-up philosophy shows 'athletes live here' too  HighSchoolOTNortheastern's program consistently produces some of the top talent in the state, and this year the Eagles are a perfect 13-0 heading into the regional ...
Jet-Letter by Rhynie Greeff: Graffiti ̶ the philosophy of silence  The South AfricanSometime in your day you will inevitably see words or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly in a public place. The defining part of the art of graffiti is ...
Apple's Reported 5G iPhone Plans Fit With Its Traditional Hardware Philosophy  TheStreetThe tech giant reportedly plans to wait until 2020 to launch 5G iPhones. That fits with its historical hardware strategy, but also spells more impression to pack ...
Ron Rivera explains philosophy in defensive playcalling  247SportsAs the day developed for the Carolina Panthers' defense in Week 13 against the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, they were caught by surprise when a playcall came in ...
Philosophy student awarded Dean's Medal after 20-year break from studies  Arizona State UniversityJonathan Liechty decided to come back to school after taking 20 years off. He returned through the Starbucks College Achievement Program and will be ...
UW-led philosophy team receives $1.5M grant to study the ethics of neurotechnology research  UW TodayUW postdoc Ivana Milovanovic (left) works with Center for Neurotechnology Young Scholars Program participant Emily Boeschoten on a sensory device.
Undergraduate Researchers Help Shape Bucknell Philosophy Course  Bucknell UniversityConor Moore '20 was the kind of high school student who read environmental science articles for fun, so majoring in environmental studies at Bucknell was a ...
Raiders' Lincoln Kennedy says Jon Gruden's 'philosophy a little different' than team's GM  Raiders WireRaiders radio color analyst Lincoln Kennedy explained the differences in philosophy between coach Jon Gruden and GM Reggie McKenzie.
NASA and philosophers now teach a philosophy of space-travel safety  QuartzWhat makes a rocket safe? Are you sure—really, really sure? To answer this question to NASA's exacting standards, you'll need not just a grasp of engineering, ...
The Missing Key Piece from Youth Catechesis? It's Philosophy  National Catholic Register“Where the right education of youth is concerned, no amount of trouble or labor can be undertaken, how great soever, but that even greater still may not be ...
6 essential books on existentialist philosophy  Big ThinkExplore some of the greatest existentialist philosophers around, from Albert Camus to Søren Kierkegaard.
10 philosophy books to develop a diverse metaphysical perspective  Big ThinkFrom Aristotle to Alan Watts, these 10 books will not only give you a better understanding of metaphysical principles, but will also endow you will new ways to ...
The Philosophy of Our Time  Boston ReviewThe Philosophy of Our Time from Boston Review. Jean-Paul Sartre's existential Marxism offers a radical philosophical foundation for today's revitalized critiques ...
Fostering a ‘philosophy of growth mindset’  The Irish TimesProfile: Coláiste de Lacy, Ashbourne Co Meath.
A Philosophy of Magic: Memphis’s Newest Conjuror Has a Mission  Memphis Flyer"Let me tell you, it almost never goes up the sleeve." Veteran educator and practicing sleight-of-hand artist Lawrence Hass drops some information on the ...
New CU Boulder philosophy course tackles sports | Colorado Arts and Sciences Magazine  CU Boulder TodayAlex Wolf-Root, a former collegiate track athlete pursuing a PhD in philosophy at CU Boulder, first got the idea to create a course melding philosophy and sports ...
Raissman: The Yankees' new 'philosophy' a hot topic as Winter Meetings begin - NY Daily News  New York Daily NewsWhen the temperature drops, and Christmas is around the corner, the Yankee way is not about convincing the media the organization will do what it takes to ...
Broadway’s first traffic jam was due to a Henri Bergson philosophy lecture  QuartzJust over 100 ago, New York newspapers announced the impending arrival of a visiting French philosopher, and the city buzzed. When Henri Bergson delivered ...
Philosophy for the Young, Medieval Style | Issue 129  Philosophy NowAround the world, teenagers are taking philosophy classes. For instance, French students take a philosophy exam at the end of their secondary education, and ...
George H.W. Bush's letters offer a glimpse into his philosophy on life  CBS NewsThough the former president didn't write a memoir, many of his handwritten letters were assembled in his book "All The Best, George Bush"
Golden Apple winner's philosophy: Empower students  WKRG News 5ELBERTA, Ala. (WKRG) -- After we surprised Elberta Elementary School teacher April Paul with her Golden Apple Award, it didn't take long for us to realize what ...
Wednesday’s letters: The world needs doctors of medicine and of philosophy  Tampa Bay TimesLearning skills for the job market | Letter, Nov. 22. The world needs plumbers, poets. It is true that college is not for everyone. Training in technical skills is ...
St Mary's Lecturer Delivers Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture  St Mary's University, TwickenhamDr Hannah M Altorf, St Mary's Philosopher, was recently invited to give a lecture at the prestigious Royal Institute of Philosophy, London Lecture Series.
Philosophy Talk: Foucault and Power  KALWIs power a matter of top-down control, or is it distributed throughout society?
On the consolations of philosophy  The Daily StarIn 2002, Unesco declared the third Thursday of every November as World Philosophy Day, to celebrate "the enduring value of philosophy for the development of ...
Do what you love and live longer, Japanese philosophy says  KTVZWhat if you could live longer just by doing more of what you love to do most?
What philosophy tells us about climate change sceptics  The Straits TimesPhilosophers have been talking about scepticism for a long time. Some of those insights can shed light on our public discourse regarding climate change.
Texans’ whatever it takes philosophy adds up 8 wins in a row  Houston Chronicle The NRG Stadium crowd's energy fit the somber pregame mood, a proper tone in a nod to the late Bob McNair, the Texans' owner who passed away two days ...
Buying minimalism: marketers and gurus seize the popular philosophy to sell you more  CBC.caMyriad minimalist home products promise to soothe your soul. Does that go against the idea of having less?
MSU philosophy intern gains valuable experience for medical school  Morehead State University NewsMorehead State University has a long and respected reputation for helping students gain admittance to pre-professional schools at rates far above both state ...
Philosophy Espresso # 8: Straight talking - Life Matters  ABC NewsStraight talking is prized in our society. But Damon Young argues that, ideally, plain speakers should be accurate and dogged in their condemnation of powerful ...
Hoffmeyer '19 hopes to explore intersection of classical music, literature, philosophy  The Daily PrincetonianJohn Hoffmeyer '19 is studying comparative literature at the University and will pursue a M.St. in Modern Languages at the University of Oxford. Photo courtesy ...
Constable: The trick of turning philosophy, physics and art into magic  Chicago Daily HeraldThe "now you see it, now you don't" magic act that 28-year-old Wheaton native Jeanette Andrews started in preschool has evolved into an event that blends ...
Mark Noble says Manuel Pellegrini's philosophy is taking effect at West Ham  SkySportsWest Ham captain Mark Noble believes the philosophy of manager Manuel Pellegrini is starting to take effect at the club.
A Universe Made for Us? Some Philosophy and Physics  Psychology TodayAccording to some experts, the physical constants of the universe shows that it was made, somehow, for us. Others disagree.
Philosophers philosophizing about philosophy on world philosophy day 2018  QuartzRead Kierkegaard and Nietzsche and Camus, and reckon with the great questions and disintegrating reality.
Minorities and Philosophy group host discussion on race  The Daily ToreadorThere are certain things people are not supposed to talk about in conversations.
Hunter Renfrow's sound philosophy has helped Clemson claim four straight division titles  Anderson Independent MailCHESTNUT HILL, Mass. – Hunter Renfrow plays the game of football by adhering to simple yet effective guiding philosophy – essentially, exert the best effort ...
Obituary: Adolf Grunbaum / Pitt professor was one of world's pre-eminent philosophers of science  Pittsburgh Post-GazetteAdolf Grunbaum, a professor and researcher at the University of Pittsburgh who was renowned during his time as perhaps the world's pre-eminent philosopher ...
New curricula in Saudi schools to include philosophy, critical thinking  Al-ArabiyaSaudi Education Minister Ahmed al-Issa has said that efforts are underway to redevelop the high school curricula and include new educational projects.
Artists will explore climate change with ‘A Night of Philosophy and Ideas’  Houston Chronicle Timothy Morton and Laurie Anderson lead the list of thinkers who will converge for “A Night of Philosophy and Ideas” about ecology and climate change at ...
On the role of truth and philosophy in fantastic fiction  Boing BoingFantasy and science fiction author and political activist Steven Brust (previously) was this year's Guest of Honor at Philcon, an excellent Philadelphia-area ...
More on the new Twins philosophy  Twinkie TownWhen Derek Falvey and Thad Levine took over the Minnesota Twins two years ago, us fans were curious to see how the organization would change. Initially, the ...
Public Service Announcement: Zack Greinke and the Philosophy of No-Trade Clauses  Viva El BirdosIn which the author employs a very special metaphor to talk about why a no trade list doesn't say what some seem to think it does.
NDSU changed its scheduling philosophy after 2013 Montana State...  Grand Forks HeraldFARGO -- After all these years and terse comments by North Dakota State fans over not hosting Montana State in the 2013 regular season, the Bobcats are ...
Understanding Philosophy Through Cartoons  WAMCThomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein have been thinking deep thoughts and writing jokes for decades, and now they are here to help us understand Philosophy.
Tiger 21 philosophy: Learn from your (very wealthy) peers  The Globe and MailBeing a member is like having your own personal board of directors, founder says.
The philosophy of Roma v Inter  Football ItaliaRoma and Inter's 2-2 draw on Sunday was more than a regular game, argues Andrea Tallarita, it was a contest of football philosophies. It is only the tyranny of ...
Philanthropy is philosophy, says Dwaraka Surya seer  Deccan HeraldPhilanthropy is a concept which encompasses the purpose of our life. One has to make philanthropy an indivisible part of our life, said Dwaraka Suryapeetha ...
UK courts will decide if veganism deserves the same discrimination protections as religion  QuartzI think it's a sounder belief than any of the religions,” says utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer.
The SNP needs a political philosophy beyond independence  New StatesmanThe party should look to the Enlightenment for inspiration - too much of its time is spent tutting at Westminster.
3 takeaways from Matt Wells' press conference, including how his offensive philosophy differs from that of Texas Tech's past  Dallas NewsA week to the day after Kliff Kingsbury coached his final game at Texas Tech, the university hosted a press conference to introduce its new head coach Matt ...
Review: The Philosopher's Wife only enlivened by “unforeseen circumstances”  The Globe and Mail“Unforeseen circumstances”: two words that can either be terrible or thrilling to hear in a theatre. Playwright Susanna Fournier got up to speak them on opening ...
Black Friday scene: A platoon of nieces, philosophy at Menards and a snake named Gladys  Milwaukee Journal SentinelShortly before 1100 hours Friday, Diana Roberson, World's Greatest Aunt, marshaled a platoon of nieces for the day's expedition. Rendezvous point: Sperry ...
"My Government Tolerant To All Religions": Mamata Banerjee On World Philosophy Day  NDTV NewsMamata Banerjee today tweeted that her government respects all religions and schools of thought. The chief minister, on the occasion of World Philosophy Day, ...
A Russian city is embroiled in protests over Immanuel Kant  QuartzThe Russian city of Kaliningrad is in the midst of a heated debate. Paint has been thrown, protests and counter-protests have been staged, and a vice-admiral ...
Ron Gallo: Stardust Birthday Party review – a post-punk philosophical rebirth  The GuardianRon Gallo's last album, Heavy Meta, was one of the best under-the-radar records of 2017, a scabrous garage rock squall about human foibles, made, he now ...
Knights philosophy was driven into Alex Tuch at early age  Las Vegas Review-JournalWing Alex Tuch is all in on coach Gerard Gallant's philosophy of not thinking too far ahead. One game, one period, one shift at a time, the coach often says.
Philosopher's day in Combined Clubs Inshore Series  My SailingAustralian IRC champion yacht Philosopher looks right on target to retain her national title in Victoria and also must rank as favourite to win the Launceston to ...
Ben Roethlisberger defends Steelers' offensive philosophy  247SportsA week ago, Steeler Nation was riding high after watching their team win their sixth straight game in Jacksonville against the Jaguars. This week, Steeler Nation ...
Philosophy Department Honors Late Professor Emeritus Stanley L. Cavell | News  Harvard CrimsonTo honor the life of emeritus Philosophy emeritus professor Stanley L. Cavell, Harvard's Philosophy Department held a tribute at Memorial Church followed by ...
Philadelphia Union roster moves signal shift in player acquisition philosophy  Brotherly GameThe bulk of minutes played in 2018 for the Philadelphia Union still went to players who first entered the league via the SuperDraft but the number is trending ...
Knowledge, Ignorance and Climate Change  The New York TimesPhilosophers have been talking about skepticism for a long time. Some of those insights can shed light on our public discourse regarding climate change.
Introduction to the revolutionary philosophy of Marxism – part one  In Defence of MarxismThe following is an introduction to the latest publication by Marxist Books, The Revolutionary Philosophy of Marxism, by the editor of In Defence of Marxism, Alan ...
'Survive and thrive': Pacific County woman's philosophy | South County News  Chinook ObserverRAYMOND — Nicole Apelian is a survivor. She leads safari groups to Africa, teaches outdoor survival skills and competes on TV reality shows which push ...
KYOCERA reflects on integral philosophy of founder Dr Kazuo Inamori to respect the divine, love people  ITWebFor KYOCERA Document Solutions, one of the world's leading document solutions companies, the philosophy of its founder, Dr Kazuo Inamori, is an integral ...
Three-day philosophers’meet from December 11  Times of IndiaPATNA: Darshan Parishad-Bihar, an organisation of philosophers, will organise its 41st annual conference at J D Women's College here from December 11 .
Pedro salutes Sarri’s attacking philosophy  FOX Sports AsiaPremier League: Chelsea's attacking players are revelling under Maurizio Sarri's attacking philosophy, according to Pedro.
About time: why western philosophy can only teach us so much – podcast  The GuardianBy gaining greater knowledge of how others think, we can become less certain of the knowledge we think we have, which is always the first step to greater ...
The Philosophers and the American Left  Tablet MagazineI. The American left, which has sometimes been poor in institutions, has always been wealthy in political philosophy—and you can see the wealth and its ...
Pelicans Long-Term Philosophy  Pelican DebriefWhat did the losses on the road, and the following home wins, teach us about this year's New Orleans Pelicans squad and what do we think moving forward?
State College Stories: Uygar Abaci  The UndergroundThis interview is part of our State College Stories series which highlights the stories and experiences of various people in and around State College.
Do what you love and live longer, the Japanese ikigai philosophy says  KSTU FOX 13 Salt Lake CityWhat if you could live longer just by doing more of what you love to do most? It's an attractive theory that finds its evidence in a community on the island of ...
USA: NYC Marxist School launches The Revolutionary Philosophy of Marxism  In Defence of MarxismOn the weekend of 10-11 November, the NYC comrades of the International Marxist Tendency hosted the 2018 Northeast Regional Marxist School. There was ...
Indiana family has gender-neutral parenting philosophy, little boy wears pink  Daily MailChristina Hise-Johnson, 35, and husband, Josh, 39, have committed to gender-neutral parenting. They don't insist that their three children adhere to traditional ...
Arthur Masuaku speaks out on Manuel Pellegrini's philosophy and makes Aaron Cresswell admission  Football.LondonLatest West Ham news includes comments from Arthur Masuaku on Manuel Pellegrini and Aaron Cresswell.
Symposium on Gandhian philosophy held in Dumaria  Avenue MailJamshedpur: A symposium on Mahatma Gandhi was organzied at Dumaria Anchal Middle School, Dumaria and Upgraded High School, Kumrasol on ...
Jaguars' Coughlin defends philosophy, offseason moves | Football  Portage Daily RegisterJACKSONVILLE, Fla. (AP) — Tom Coughlin recognizes that NFL rules favor passing and insists he understands "what the public wants."
Cream Premiere: Blank Range Gets Philosophical in "Proximity" [Fresh Vid]  Nashville SceneVid accompanies a track from the group's LP In Unison, out Feb. 1.
Defense first philosophy key for McCutcheon girls basketball  Journal & CourierThe Mavericks improved to 3-0 on Monday with a win over Twin Lakes.
ETSU philosophy lecturer raises ethical questions about gene editing research  Johnson City Press (subscription)The ethical debate about editing embryos' genes continues after the Chinese government ordered a halt to work by researchers who have claimed to create the ...
Good Grief!: The beguiling philosophy of Peanuts  BBC NewsPeanuts creator Charles M Schulz claimed his comic strips were “about nothing” – but according to a new exhibition, they had a seismic influence on society, ...
Our View: As far as casino partnership goes, it seems that morals and philosophy might be as important as profitability  Appeal-DemocratHard Rock International executives who visited here last week along with tribal members of the Enterprise Rancheria, pledge that they'll be good corporate ...
Einstein's 'God letter' hits auction block  Richmond Free PressA handwritten 1954 letter by physicist Albert Einstein in which the Nobel laureate is dismissive of religion in general and Judaism in particular is expected to ...
How humanities grads are finding jobs in Silicon Valley  PBS NewsHourOnly 1 in 20 college degrees awarded today are in the humanities or liberal arts, as a perception persists that these fields don't provide marketable skills for ...
Ignored by England, philosophical Gloucester turn to Europe and Exeter showdown  Telegraph.co.ukAlongside intrepid Bristol Bears, Gloucester were one of just two Gallagher Premiership clubs not represented by England during the autumn Tests.
MLB hot stove: Astros reportedly sign catcher Robinson Chirinos, and he could represent a philosophical change  CBS SportsThe Astros have landed a new starting catcher: Houston will pay Robinson Chirinos nearly $6 million as part of a one-year pact, per Ken Rosenthal of The ...
MIT Artist Joan Jonas Receives Japan's Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy  Business WireMIT Artist Joan Jonas Receives Kyoto Prize, Japan's Highest Private Award for Global Achievement.
Is The World An Illusion? | Issue 129  Philosophy NowOf course the world is an illusion! We see only a tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is divided into colours that exist only in our brains. We hear only ...
Kacey Musgraves' 2018 CMA Awards Outfit Was a Tribute to Her Musical Philosophy  The BootThe big event for Kacey Musgraves during the 2018 CMA Awards may have been her win in the category of Album of the Year (for Golden Hour), but the country ...

My Insight into Numerology

From time to time, we wonder about the mystery that... Read More

Choice and Social Acceptance in Human Organizations

Let's discuss choice and social acceptance. I had the most... Read More

Simple Words

The words, the thoughts, the processes go on and on.As... Read More

Star-Fire Ceremony

The Templar flag Columbus and da Gama traveled under was... Read More

The Early Life of Jesus

INTRODUCTION:Yeshua bar Joseph or Yeshua ben Joseph has become known... Read More

Slavers Claim To be Slaves - Taxation

The United States of America was planned by elite members... Read More

German Philosophers

German Culture: German PhilosophersGerman and German speaking philosophers have made... Read More

All That We Are... Are Labels

Within the confines of the known universe, a madness is... Read More

Teilhard de Chardin

FATHER PIERRE TEILHARD de CHARDIN:He is one of my heroes... Read More

The Knowledge Filter

"[I often get] the feeling that the very concept of... Read More

Platos Atlantis: Fact, Fiction or Prophecy?

Atlantis is often described as paranormal or mythical, but is... Read More

Future Shock

Futurists like Alvin Toffler and his wife are important parts... Read More

Socrates Warned Us But We Killed Him

The ability to do something that requires generations to develop... Read More

Nature of Visual Representation

Nature is often called "red in tooth and claw", this... Read More

Why Im Glad Im Not a Minority Writer

I'll admit that I used to be jealous of my... Read More

Life in the Universe Part II

We are most probably not the only beings in the... Read More

From Experience: Is It the Circle of Life?

All of it in one way or another a part... Read More

Goths

To start this chapter we have a response from the... Read More

Phony-Baloney Detection Lesson #2

Appeals to AuthorityListen to this quote by a guy I... Read More

The Cosmic Eggs

One of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World is... Read More

Angel Inspired E-mails

This morning, I awoke somewhat down. As little seems to... Read More

Fire Walkers

DERVISH: - Whirling and ecstatically altering their conscious and soul... Read More

Illuminati in Kentucky

Illuminati in Kentucky:My fevered imagination includes the probability that Andrew... Read More

Purpose

There is no God.Belief is a stray sentiment; it functions... Read More

Nature Worship

NATURE WORSHIP: - Wicca and witchcraft or other shamanic attunements... Read More