Biometric identification refers to identifying an individual based on his/her distinguishing physiological and/or behavioural characteristics. As these characteristics are distinctive to each and every person, biometric identification is more reliable and capable than the traditional token based and knowledge based technologies differentiating between an authorized and a fraudulent person. This paper discusses the mainstream biometric technologies and the advantages and disadvantages of biometric technologies, their security issues and finally their applications in day today life.


"Biometrics" are automated methods of recognizing an individual based on their physical or behavioral characteristics. Some common commercial examples are fingerprint, face, iris, hand geometry, voice and dynamic signature. These, as well as many others, are in various stages of development and/or deployment. The type of biometric that is "best " will vary significantly from one application to another. These methods of identification are preferred over traditional methods involving passwords and PIN numbers for various reasons: (i) the person to be identified is required to be physically present at the point-of-identification; (ii) identification based on biometric techniques obviates the need to remember a password or carry a token. Biometric recognition can be used in identification mode, where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match.


All biometric systems consist of three basic elements:

  • Enrollment, or the process of collecting biometric samples from an individual, known as the enrollee, and the subsequent generation of his template.

  • Templates, or the data representing the enrollee's biometric.

  • Matching, or the process of comparing a live biometric sample against one or many templates in the system's database.


Enrollment is the crucial first stage for biometric authentication because enrollment generates a template that will be used for all subsequent matching. Typically, the device takes three samples of the same biometric and averages them to produce an enrollment template. Enrollment is complicated by the dependence of the performance of many biometric systems on the users' familiarity with the biometric device because enrollment is usually the first time the user is exposed to the device. Environmental conditions also affect enrollment. Enrollment should take place under conditions similar to those expected during the routine matching process. For example, if voice verification is used in an environment where there is background noise, the system's ability to match voices to enrolled templates depends on capturing these templates in the same environment. In addition to user and environmental issues, biometrics themselves change over time. Many biometric systems account for these changes by continuously averaging. Templates are averaged and updated each time the user attempts authentication.


As the data representing the enrollee's biometric, the biometric device creates templates. The device uses a proprietary algorithm to extract "features" appropriate to that biometric from the enrollee's samples. Templates are only a record of distinguishing features, sometimes called minutiae points, of a person's biometric characteristic or trait. For example, templates are not an image or record of the actual fingerprint or voice. In basic terms, templates are numerical representations of key points taken from a person's body. The template is usually small in terms of computer memory use, and this allows for quick processing, which is a hallmark of biometric authentication. The template must be stored somewhere so that subsequent templates, created when a user tries to access the system using a sensor, can be compared. Some biometric experts claim it is impossible to reverse-engineer, or recreate, a person's print or image from the biometric template.


Matching is the comparison of two templates, the template produced at the time of enrollment (or at previous sessions, if there is continuous updating) with the one produced "on the spot" as a user tries to gain access by providing a biometric via a sensor. There are three ways a match can fail:

  • Failure to enroll.

  • False match.

  • False nonmatch.

Failure to enroll (or acquire) is the failure of the technology to extract distinguishing features appropriate to that technology. For example, a small percentage of the population fails to enroll in fingerprint-based biometric authentication systems. Two reasons account for this failure: the individual's fingerprints are not distinctive enough to be picked up by the system, or the distinguishing characteristics of the individual's fingerprints have been altered because of the individual's age or occupation, e.g., an elderly bricklayer.

In addition, the possibility of a false match (FM) or a false nonmatch (FNM) exists. These two terms are frequently misnomered "false acceptance" and "false rejection," respectively, but these terms are application-dependent in meaning. FM and FNM are application-neutral terms to describe the matching process between a live sample and a biometric template. A false match occurs when a sample is incorrectly matched to a template in the database (i.e., an imposter is accepted). A false non-match occurs when a sample is incorrectly not matched to a truly matching template in the database (i.e., a legitimate match is denied). Rates for FM and FNM are calculated and used to make tradeoffs between security and convenience. For example, a heavy security emphasis errs on the side of denying legitimate matches and does not tolerate acceptance of imposters. A heavy emphasis on user convenience results in little tolerance for denying legitimate matches but will tolerate some acceptance of imposters.


The function of a biometric technologies authentication system is to facilitate controlled access to applications, networks, personal computers (PCs), and physical facilities. A biometric authentication system is essentially a method of establishing a person's identity by comparing the binary code of a uniquely specific biological or physical characteristic to the binary code of an electronically stored characteristic called a biometric. The defining factor for implementing a biometric authentication system is that it cannot fall prey to hackers; it can't be shared, lost, or guessed. Simply put, a biometric authentication system is an efficient way to replace the traditional password based authentication system. While there are many possible biometrics, at least eight mainstream biometric authentication technologies have been deployed or pilot-tested in applications in the public and private sectors and are grouped into two as given,

  • Contact Biometric Technologies

    • fingerprint,

    • hand/finger geometry,

    • dynamic signature verification, and

    • keystroke dynamics

  • Contactless Biometric Technologies

    • facial recognition,

    • voice recognition

    • iris scan,

    • retinal scan,


For the purpose of this study, a biometric technology that requires an individual to make direct contact with an electronic device (scanner) will be referred to as a contact biometric. Given that the very nature of a contact biometric is that a person desiring access is required to make direct contact with an electronic device in order to attain logical or physical access. Because of the inherent need of a person to make direct contact, many people have come to consider a contact biometric to be a technology that encroaches on personal space and to be intrusive to personal privacy.


The fingerprint biometric is an automated digital version of the old ink-and-paper method used for more than a century for identification, primarily by law enforcement agencies. The biometric device involves users placing their finger on a platen for the print to be read. The minutiae are then extracted by the vendor's algorithm, which also makes a fingerprint pattern analysis. Fingerprint template sizes are typically 50 to 1,000 bytes. Fingerprint biometrics currently have three main application arenas: large-scale Automated Finger Imaging Systems (AFIS) generally used for law enforcement purposes, fraud prevention in entitlement pro-grams, and physical and computer access.

Hand/Finger Geometry

Hand or finger geometry is an automated measurement of many dimensions of the hand and fingers. Neither of these methods takes actual prints of the palm or fingers. Only the spatial geometry is examined as the user puts his hand on the sensor's surface and uses guiding poles between the fingers to properly place the hand and initiate the reading. Hand geometry templates are typically 9 bytes, and finger geometry templates are 20 to 25 bytes. Finger geometry usually measures two or three fingers. Hand geometry is a well-developed technology that has been thoroughly field-tested and is easily accepted by users.

Dynamic Signature Verification

Dynamic signature verification is an automated method of examining an individual's signature. This technology examines such dynamics as speed, direction, and pressure of writing; the time that the stylus is in and out of contact with the "paper"; the total time taken to make the signature; and where the stylus is raised from and lowered onto the "paper." Dynamic signature verification templates are typically 50 to 300 bytes.

Keystroke Dynamics

Keystroke dynamics is an automated method of examining an individual's keystrokes on a keyboard. This technology examines such dynamics as speed and pressure, the total time of typing a particular password, and the time a user takes between hitting certain keys. This technology's algorithms are still being developed to improve robustness and distinctiveness. One potentially useful application that may emerge is computer access, where this biometric could be used to verify the computer user's identity continuously.


A contactless biometric can either come in the form of a passive (biometric device continuously monitors for the correct activation frequency) or active (user initiates activation at will) biometric. In either event, authentication of the user biometric should not take place until the user voluntarily agrees to present the biometric for sampling. A contactless biometric can be used to verify a persons identity and offers at least two dimension that contact biometric technologies cannot match. A contactless biometric is one that does not require undesirable contact in order to extract the required data sample of the biological characteristic and in that respect a contactless biometric is most adaptable to people of variable ability levels.

Facial Recognition

Facial recognition records the spatial geometry of distinguishing features of the face. Different vendors use different methods of facial recognition, however, all focus on measures of key features. Facial recognition templates are typically 83 to 1,000 bytes. Facial recognition technologies can encounter performance problems stemming from such factors as no cooperative behavior of the user, lighting, and other environmental variables. Facial recognition has been used in projects to identify card counters in casinos, shoplifters in stores, criminals in targeted urban areas, and terrorists overseas.

Voice Recognition

Voice or speaker recognition uses vocal characteristics to identify individuals using a pass-phrase. Voice recognition can be affected by such environmental factors as background noise. Additionally it is unclear whether the technologies actually recognize the voice or just the pronunciation of the pass-phrase (password) used. This technology has been the focus of considerable efforts on the part of the telecommunications industry and NSA, which continue to work on

improving reliability. A telephone or microphone can serve as a sensor, which makes it a relatively cheap and easily deployable technology.

Iris Scan

Iris scanning measures the iris pattern in the colored part of the eye, although the iris color has nothing to do with the biometric. Iris patterns are formed randomly. As a result, the iris patterns in your left and right eyes are different, and so are the iris patterns of identical-cal twins. Iris scan templates are typically around 256 bytes. Iris scanning can be used quickly for both identification and verification

Applications because of its large number of degrees of freedom. Current pilot programs and applications include ATMs ("Eye-TMs"), grocery stores (for checking out), and the few International Airports (physical access).

Retinal Scan

Retinal scans measure the blood vessel patterns in the back of the eye. Retinal scan templates are typically 40 to 96 bytes. Because users perceive the technology to be somewhat intrusive, retinal scanning has not gained popularity with end-users. The device involves a light source shined into the eye of a user who must be standing very still within inches of the device. Because the retina can change with certain medical conditions, such as pregnancy, high blood pressure, and AIDS, this biometric might have the potential to reveal more information than just an individual's identity.

Emerging biometric technologies:

Many inventors, companies, and universities continue to search the frontier for the next biometric that shows potential of becoming the best. Emerging biometric is a biometric that is in the infancy stages of proven technological maturation. Once proven, an emerging biometric will evolve in to that of an established biometric. Such types of emerging technologies are the following:

  • Brainwave Biometric

  • DNA Identification

  • Vascular Pattern Recognition

  • Body Odor Recognition

  • Fingernail Bed Recognition

  • Gait Recognition

  • Handgrip Recognition

  • Ear Pattern Recognition

  • Body Salinity Identification

  • Infrared Fingertip Imaging & Pattern Recognition


The most common standardized encryption method used to secure a company's infrastructure is the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) approach. This approach consists of two keys with a binary string ranging in size from 1024-bits to 2048-bits, the first key is a public key (widely known) and the second key is a private key (only known by the owner). However, the PKI must also be stored and inherently it too can fall prey to the same authentication limitation of a password, PIN, or token. It too can be guessed, lost, stolen, shared, hacked, or circumvented; this is even further justification for a biometric authentication system. Because of the structure of the technology industry, making biometric security a feature of embedded systems, such as cellular phones, may be simpler than adding similar features to PCs. Unlike the personal computer, the cell phone is a fixed-purpose device. To successfully incorporate Biometrics, cell-phone developers need not gather support from nearly as many groups as PC-application developers must.

Security has always been a major concern for company executives and information technology professionals of all entities. A biometric authentication system that is correctly implemented can provide unparalleled security, enhanced convenience, heightened accountability, superior fraud detection, and is extremely effective in discouraging fraud. Controlling access to logical and physical assets of a company is not the only concern that must be addressed. Companies, executives, and security managers must also take into account security of the biometric data (template). There are many urban biometric legends about cutting off someone finger or removing a body part for the purpose of gain access. This is not true for once the blood supply of a body part is taken away, the unique details of that body part starts to deteriorate within minutes. Hence the unique details of the severed body part(s) is no longer in any condition to function as an acceptable input for scanners.

The best overall way to secure an enterprise infrastructure, whether it be small or large is to use a smart card. A smart card is a portable device with an embedded central processing unit (CPU). The smart card can either be fashioned to resemble a credit card, identification card, radio frequency identification (RFID), or a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) card. The smart card can be used to store data of all types, but it is commonly used to store encrypted data, human resources data, medical data, financial data, and biometric data (template). The smart card can be access via a card reader, PCMCIA slot, or proximity reader. In most biometric-security applications, the system itself determines the identity of the person who presents himself to the system. Usually, the identity is supplied to the system, often by presenting a machine-readable ID card, and then the system asked to confirm. This problem is "one-to- one matching." Today's PCs can conduct a one-to-one match in, at most, a few seconds. One-to-one matching differs significantly from one-to-many matching. In a system that stores a million sets of prints, a one-to-many match requires comparing the presented fingerprint with 10 million prints (1 million sets times 10 prints/set). A smart card is a must when implementing a biometric authentication system; only by the using a smart card can an organization satisfy all security and legal requirements. Smart cards possess the basic elements of a computer (interface, processor, and storage), and are therefore very capable of performing authentication functions right on the card.

The function of performing authentication within the confines of the card is known as 'Matching on the Card (MOC)'. From a security prospective MOC is ideal as the biometric template, biometric sampling and associated algorithms never leave the card and as such cannot be intercepted or spoofed by others (Smart Card Alliance). The problem with smart cards is the public-key infrastructure certificates built into card does not solve the problem of someone stealing the card or creating one. A TTP (Trusted Third Party) can be used to verify the authenticity of a card via an encrypted MAC (Media Access Control).


People as diverse as those of variable abilities are subject to many barriers, theories, concepts, and practices that stem from the relative culture (i.e. stigma, dignity or heritage) and perceptions (i.e. religion or philosophical) of the international community. These factors are so great that they could encompass a study of their own. To that end, it is also theorized that to a certain degree that the application of diversity factors from current theories, concepts, and practices may be capable of providing a sturdy framework to the management of employees with disabilities. Moreover, it has been implied that the term diversity is a synonymous reflection of the initiatives and objectives of affirmative action policies. The concept of diversity in the workplace actually refers to the differences embodied by the workforce members at large. The differences between all employees in the workforce can be equated to those employees of different or diverse ethnic origin, racial descent, gender, sexual orientation, chronological maturity, and ability; in effect minorities.


Biometric technologies can be applied to areas requiring logical access solutions, and it can be used to access applications, personal computers, networks, financial accounts, human resource records, the telephone system, and invoke customized profiles to enhance the mobility of the disabled. In a business-to-business scenario, the biometric authentication system can be linked to the business processes of a company to increase accountability of financial systems, vendors, and supplier transactions; the results can be extremely beneficial.

The global reach of the Internet has made the services and products of a company available 24/7, provided the consumer has a user name and password to login. In many cases the consumer may have forgotten his/her user name, password, or both. The consumer must then take steps to retrieve or reset his/her lost or forgotten login information. By implementing a biometric authentication system consumers can opt to register their biometric trait or smart card with a company's business-to-consumer e-commerce environment, which will allow a consumer to access their account and pay for goods and services (e-commerce). The benefit is that a consumer will never lose or forget his/her user name or password, and will be able to conduct business at their convenience. A biometric authentications system can be applied to areas requiring physical access solutions, such as entry into a building, a room, a safe or it may be used to start a motorized vehicle. Additionally, a biometric authentication system can easily be linked to a computer-based application used to monitor time and attendance of employees as they enter and leave company facilities. In short, contactless biometrics can and do lend themselves to people of all ability levels.


Some people, especially those with disabilities may have problems with contact biometrics. Not because they do not want to use it, but because they endure a disability that either prevents them from maneuvering into a position that will allow them to make use the biometric or because the biometric authentication system (solution) is not adaptable to the user. For example, if the user is blind a voice biometric may be more appropriate.


Most biometric applications fall into one of nine general categories:

  • Financial services (e.g., ATMs and kiosks).

  • Immigration and border control (e.g., points of entry, precleared frequent travelers, passport and visa issuance, asylum cases).

  • Social services (e.g., fraud prevention in entitlement programs).

  • Health care (e.g., security measure for privacy of medical records).

  • Physical access control (e.g., institutional, government, and residential).

  • Time and attendance (e.g., replacement of time punch card).

  • Computer security (e.g., personal computer access, network access, Internet use, e-commerce, e-mail, encryption).

  • Telecommunications (e.g., mobile phones, call center technology, phone cards, televised shopping).

  • Law enforcement (e.g., criminal investigation, national ID, driver's license, correctional institutions/prisons, home confinement, smart gun).


Currently, there exist a gap between the number of feasible biometric projects and knowledgeable experts in the field of biometric technologies. The post September 11 th, 2002 attack (a.k.a. 9-11) on the World Trade Center has given rise to the knowledge gap. Post 9-11 many nations have recognized the need for increased security and identification protocols of both domestic and international fronts. This is however, changing as studies and curriculum associated to biometric technologies are starting to be offered at more colleges and universities. A method of closing the biometric knowledge gap is for knowledge seekers of biometric technologies to participate in biometric discussion groups and biometric standards committees.

The solutions only needs the user to possess a minimum of require user knowledge and effort. A biometric solution with minimum user knowledge and effort would be very welcomed to both the purchase and the end user. But, keep in mind that at the end of the day all that the end users care about is that their computer is functioning correctly and that the interface is friendly, for users of all ability levels. Alternative methods of authenticating a person's identity are not only a good practice for making biometric systems accessible to people of variable ability level. But it will also serve as a viable alternative method of dealing with authentication and enrollment errors.

Auditing processes and procedures on a regular basis during and after installation is an excellent method of ensuring that the solution is functioning within normal parameters. A well-orchestrated biometric authentication solution should not only prevent and detect an impostor in instantaneous, but it should also keep a secure log of the transaction activities for prosecution of impostors. This is especially important, because a great deal of ID theft and fraud involves employees and a secure log of the transaction activities will provide the means for prosecution or quick resolution of altercations.


  • Pankanti S, Bolle R & Jain A, Biometrics:The Future of Identification

  • Nalwa V, Automatic on-line signature verification

  • Biometric Consortium homepage,

About The Author

K.Murali graduated from St.Peter's Engineering College, affiliated to Chennai University, India in Electronics and Communication Engineering in 2004. He has started his career as a Technical Engineer in M L Telecom, Chennai, India. He has presented technical papers on Bio-Medical Engineering, Digital Wireless Communication, Tele-Medicine, and Spread Spectrum Techniques. His current research interests are in the areas of Biometrics and Wireless Mobile Internet.


PHONE NUMBER: +91-0416-2297260

EMAIL ID: [email protected]

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The Psychology Of Smarter Leadership: Principles Executives And Managers Must Understand  ForbesThese principles can be successfully applied in almost any business environment to strengthen relationships and improve performance.
Forex Analysis - Psychology/Strategy for major markets today  FXMarketAlerts.comEUR/USD - Better equity tone and continuing low volatility helping the USD while expectations of continued weakness in Europe exacerbated by Bundesbank ...
7 Early-Life Stressors May Be Linked to DNA Methylation  Psychology TodayEarly-life adversity may predict epigenetic changes that could have implications for future mental health, according to a recent report.
#WorldBakingDay - the psychology of baking and its benefits  IOLBaking can be accompanied with a host of psychological benefits. It can also be a helpful way to communicate one's feelings.
Psychology offers new way of assessing who is at risk of gambling problems  The British Psychological SocietyProblem gamblers assess chance differently from other people and that may make it possible to identify those at risk. That was the finding being presented to our ...
ICC YAF: The psychology of decision-making in international arbitration - ICC  International Chamber of CommerceJoin us for this ICC YAF Conference on the psychology of decision making in international arbitration, where we will discuss the ways in which decisions – of ...
Can Psychedelic Experiences Cure Alcohol Addiction?  Psychology TodayA new study hints at a novel and promising treatment for alcohol use disorder.
UB psychologist receives $2.2 million NIH grant to study school readiness  UB News CenterFive-year project will test family and peer adversity and use psychophysiology measures to index the role of stress. By Bert Gambini. Release Date: May 17, ...
Why Are There No Approved Drugs for Anorexia?  Psychology TodayDrug testing is difficult when the end goal is a patient's biggest fear.
Britain suffering ‘enormous stress’ over Brexit, psychologist warns  The Irish Times'It has real consequences for people's well-being and mental health,' Professor says.
Is Alcohol Impacting Your Relationship?  Psychology TodayDoes alcohol play a part in the fights you have with your partner? Luckily, a few small adjustments can help manage alcohol's effects on your relationship.
Crowd psychology says this ‘fool’s rally’ in stocks could fool bears  MarketWatchA number of indicators suggest the stock market could extend gains.
Cardinals Need a New Psychology (Getting Minds and Words Right)  Revenge of the BirdsThe Arizona Cardinals have begun to take big steps in their attempt to recapture the NFC West. This year the Cardinals have added new, exciting, attack-style ...
Finding Compassion for Detained Migrant Children  Psychology TodayOn May 15, Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lindsey Graham proposed to expand the number of days immigrant children can be detained with their ...
This study reveals some psychological facts about gossiping - Gossip mongering  Economic TimesAccording to an interesting study, people gossip 52 minutes a day on an average in 16 waking hours, women don't engage in "tear-down" gossip any more than ...
JAMES SCHAEFER: Solving the biodiversity crisis means changing our short-term psychology  The GuardianIn the 18th century, a budding psychiatrist devised a foolproof way of distinguishing the sane person from the insane. The subject was locked in a room. On one ...
What Happens When Racism and Sexism Go Mainstream?  Psychology TodayPublic discourse has arguably coarsened, often to the point of vulgarity. Are shifting norms linked to the surges in violence against disadvantaged and ...
How to Get the Most Out of Dreaming  Psychology TodayDreams… lovely, terrifying, wonderful dreams. The sleeping equivalent of the dark night of the soul, while dreams can be totally mundane, quotidian, ...
Watson earns Bachelor of Arts in Psychology | Lakelands Connector  Index-JournalJessica Hannah Watson of Durham, NC graduated from North Carolina Central University May 11, 2019 with a 3.6 GPA Bachelor of Arts in Psychology. She will ...
Accused Appalachian Trail killer to undergo psychological evaluation  8NewsA federal court judge has ruled that the man accused of stabbing a hiker to death on the Appalachian Trail in Wythe County, Va., will undergo a psychological ...
How to Find a Solution After an Argument  Psychology TodayWhen a fight is over, there are still practical problems to solve. How can you find mutual agreement without starting the fight all over again?
Posh people really do think they’re better than others, psychologists find  The IndependentPosh people really do think they're better than others, according to new research. People in higher social classes are “overconfident” about their abilities which ...
Medical Thriller About a Government Cover-Up  Psychology TodayBeing a skeptic about most claims of government conspiracies, I began reading Bitten: The Secret History of Lyme Disease and Biological Weapons, by Kris ...
Surprise—There’s No Such Thing as Normal  Psychology TodayDo you worry you are not emotionally normal? Stop wearing yourself down. Discover the myth of normality.
18 retail startups that are using psychology, sustainability, and the internet age to reinvent how they packag  Business Insider IndiaInsider Picks writes about products and services to help you navigate when shopping online. Insider, Inc. receives a commission from our affiliate partners.
MSU psychology major is university's newest Fulbright finalist  Mississippi State NewsroomA Mississippi State psychology major is the university's newest Fulbright finalist.
Underlying psychological traits could explain why political satire tends to be liberal  PsyPostThe need for cognition -- a psychological term used to describe the enjoyment of thinking and analyzing problems -- could help explain the differences in ...
5 Game of Thrones Takeaways  Psychology TodayThe Games of Thrones series taught us many things, including these five lessons.
Psychologists Agree: It May Be Time to Rethink Your Monogamous Relationship  InverseResearch makes it clear that our best intentions are often worthless in the face of a compelling, and possibly unexpected, attraction to another person.
Did Elizabeth Holmes Delude Smart Men by Acting Like a Man?  Psychology TodayThe spectacular failure of the multibillion dollar startup Theranos and its founder Elizabeth Holmes may have included an unappreciated influence of gender ...
Unpicking the psychology that drives stock market trends  World FinanceOn December 15, 1989, in the dead of night, Italian-American artist Arturo Di Modica set out to erect his latest work. With a little help from the Bedi-Makky Art ...
How to Free Your Relationship From Unwanted Expectations  Psychology TodayYour earliest relationships have a great influence on many of your behaviors, decisions, and conscious and unconscious motives. Silent agreements are the ...
Leading psychologist to address behavioural risks in oil and gas sector - News for the Oil and Gas Sector  Energy VoiceAn Aberdeen predictive technology firm has appointed a leading psychologist to help address behavioural risks in the oil and gas sector. Eugene Burke said ...
Long Island Psychologists Continue to Help Long Islanders Overcome Depression and Anxiety  LongIsland.comResearch consistently shows that anxiety and depression are on the rise. With busier lives, tension in the news, and limited spare time, men and women on ...
The psychology behind why your mom may be the mother of all heroes  SalonEach May, the United States celebrates Mother's Day, and for good reason. According to surveys I've conducted, over 25% of Americans cite their mother as ...
Four Types of Narcissist, and How to Spot Each One  Psychology TodayAccording to Google Trends, usage of the term “narcissist” has been on the rise for the past 10 years. It's often used as a casual insult. No one likes to be known ...
Ethiopian institutions long operated with anti-democratic psychology - Minister  africanewsAlso present at the meeting was Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed who was a participant. The Chief Justice Meaza Ashenafi also made submissions calling for the ...

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