Psychological Tips for Effective Studying

STUDY STRATEGIES

* Revise regularly- Revision should be continuous if you are to gain a deep understanding of the subject. It should not be superficial and rushed. Cramming might help you remember a few facts but it will not give you the overall understanding of a subject, which you should be studying for in your University Education.

* Be systematic- You should begin organizing a study schedule as soon as possible in the start of the semester

* Use varied techniques- besides making summaries of your lecture notes, use varying strategies for your revision. Draw up schemes showing the relationship between the concepts you have studied in your subjects or form study groups with your fellow students to discuss the different topics and the relationships between them to reinforce both understanding and recall.

* Use relationship to memorize- Understanding the relationships between pieces of information, such as their similarities and differences, and using their relationship to information already known is a definite advantage during stress of an examination.

* Practice previous exam papers- You should obtain copies of previous exam papers as early as possible in the revision process. Doing these exams in the required time limit will give you practice in applying what you have learnt to specific topics and practice in examination techniques. This will also give you a good idea of the format, time limit and the number of questions in the examination.

* Attend lectures- Pay attention in lectures and tutorials and so on for information relevant to exams. For example what topic might be expected in a test etc?

Stress the following areas in your revision:

? Points emphasized in class or in the text

? Areas the Professor has advised for study

? Questions in study guides, past questions and reviews at the end of textbook chapters.

STUDY HABITS

* Decide what to study (choose a reasonable task) and how long or how many chapters, pages, problems, etc. Set and stick to deadline.

* Do difficult tasks first. For procrastination, start with an easy interesting aspect of the project.

* Have special places to study. Take into consideration, lighting, temperature, and availability of materials.

* Study 50 minutes and then take a 10 minutes break. Stretch, relax, have energy snack.

* If you get tired or bored, switch task/activity. Stop studying when you are no longer being productive.

* Do rough memory tasks and review, especially detail, just before you fall asleep.

* Study with a friend. Quiz each other compare notes and predicted test questions.

STUDY SKILLS

o Physical environment- Choose situations, which make you feel comfortable, for example a particular space in the library, in your own home or study room in halls of residence.

o Plan a time table- Use a time schedule to prioritise study times and try to stick to your schedule.

o Mental activity- Remember that your concentration span is limited. So do not sit for 3-4 hours at a time starting at one page of notes. Wait for an hour or so reading and making extra notes. Draft out or use real exam questions from past papers and consider how little you know and understand

o Stop to take a break- Have a coffee or short walk and mentally review what you have achieved. Return to your studies.

o You will find that the process of activity and review will be useful and will help you to set a pattern of study.

o Quality of study- Remember that it is not time itself spent on studying which matters, it is the quality of the exercise of studying. Develop an understanding of the material you are working on. Information simply committed to memory will rarely see you safely through your exams.

o Choice of material- Don't shy away from material which you find most difficult to understand because if you do it will be precisely this material which will be problematic for you in the exam. Take this material first.

o Problems- If there are sections of the syllabus, which you cannot understand, try to find the appropriate lecturer to help you. But try not to leave this until the day before the exam. Ask someone on the same course as you. If these strategies don't work for you try using a variety of different textbooks, some authors explain difficult concepts better than others.

CONCENTRATION

Concentration is the ability to direct one's thinking in whatever direction one would intend. We all have the ability to concentrate sometimes.

Think of the time when you were engrossed in super novel or in a cinema -Total concentration. But at other times your thoughts are scattered and you mind races from one thing to another. Learn and practice concentration strategies.

Poor concentration- External causes

-Internal causes

REVISION

Revision is a process of looking over past work as preparation for examination. It is an activity which can produce good results and reduce 'exam nerves' if it is carefully planned and carried out in a systematic way. Black coffee and sleepless nights just before your exams rarely allow you to do justice to your talents.

Towards end of a course, a review of your completed written work and of past examination papers will often indicate the existence of close links between exam questions and essays, assignments and project work. On this basis, you select your own best work and use it for revision. Work, which has been less successful, should contain advice from a tutor and this can be followed up.

What revisions can do for you:

* Extends your ability to assess your own knowledge and understanding.

* Provides an opportunity to analyze this in relation to the requirements of the examination.

* Enable you to pass examination and gain recognition for your talents.

GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL REVISION

* Make sure you know well in advance the topics to be covered in the particular exam.

* Keep copies of all course documents, projects, essay questions, title of assignments and reading list on file.

* Make this the basis of your revision. Resist the temptation to try to start your course all over again from the beginning.

* Review your own the assessed work, making a selection of that with the best grade.

* Compare your own work with the question asked as past question papers.

* At this stage it is vital that you will have enough material to answer all the likely questions.

* If you decide on to expand what you have already got, look at less successful papers and see if you can improve them by careful editing, filling in gaps, correcting errors of fact or understanding.

* Reduce each piece of work to note form.

TIME MANAGEMENT

Avoid overload. Organize your hours to include ample time for rest, relaxation, sleep, eating, exercising and socializing. Break the study time into manageable amounts of time to avoid boredom and loss of concentration. Sessions lasting 20-30 minutes are the best Studying for six half hour sessions is much more effective than studying for 3 straight hours.

Don't put everything off until the last minute.

PRACTICE EFFECTIVE STUDY TECHNIQUES

Have appropriate study environments.

Split large task into more manageable tasks.

Read for comprehension rather than get to the end of the chapter.

Be prepared to ask questions as they come up during study, rather than waiting until just before and exam.

Don't wait until the last minute to complete your projects.

Read the syllabus as soon as you get it and note all due dates( and milestone times) on your calendar.

Be a model student.

Be attentive and participative in the class and punctual, prepared and eager to learn.

BE ABLE TO BE FLEXIBILE

The unexpected happenings, e.g. Sickness, need to be able to fit into our schedule.

Know how to rearrange your schedule when necessary (so that it doesn't manage you, but you manage it).

HAVE A VISION

Don't forget the big picture.

Why are you doing the task? Is it important for your long-term goals? Have and follow a personal mission statement (personal and career) Are your activities ultimately helping you to achieve your goals.

Know what is important to you.

(What do you value most)

Have a positive attitude.

Dr. Hari S.Chandran, M.Phil (Psy), Ph.D, PGDPC is working as Cons. Psychologist, Department of Deaddiction & Mental Health, St. Gregorios Mission Hospital, Parumala. Kerala, [email protected]

In The News:

The Dehumanizing Mind  Psychology Today
What Happens As We Are Dying?  Psychology Today
Pregnancy Discrimination  Psychology Today
Is Psychology Broken?  Psychology Today
Trauma and OCD  Psychology Today
Seeing Pets as Human  Psychology Today
Sexual Citizens: Book Review  Psychology Today
Plague  Psychology Today
Losing Friends With Grace  Psychology Today
Who Uses Drugs and Why?  Psychology Today
Why Psychology Matters  Psychology Today
After Psychology  Psychology Today

We are in the End Days; Oh, Really Now?

Some think the world is coming to an end, they... Read More

I?m Sorry! Blame-Game or Accountability?

A powerful tool for health as we approach the new... Read More

The Diagnosis Myth

Although I risk dissension by doing so, I must say... Read More

How Big of a Problem is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - "ADD" or "ADHD" - affects... Read More

Ericksons Theory of Human Development

I'm sure you've heard the term "Identity Crisis" before. It's... Read More

A Look at The Brain

The endless, immeasurable brain. It does seem like more we... Read More

Treatment Modalities and Therapies

Narcissism constitutes the entire personality. It is all-pervasive. Being a... Read More

Eating Disorders and the Narcissist

Patients suffering from eating disorders binge on food and sometimes... Read More

The Mind, Information, and Attitude

Information is flowing to us at a great rate. The... Read More

Anti-Social Behaviors and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Anti-social behaviors are common with ADHD individuals. About 60% of... Read More

Dogs Use Psycho-Cybernetics To Accomplish Goals

Dogs picture in their minds an event of an activity... Read More

Waking Up in the Middle of a Good Dream

When the brain is asleep and in REM dream mode... Read More

HypoManiacs Often Misunderstood

Are you a Hypomaniac? If you are you have some... Read More

The Cultural Narcissist - Lasch In An Age Of Diminishing Expectations

"The new narcissist is haunted not by guilt but by... Read More

Key Solution Focus Interviewing Skills

There are several key Solution Focus interviewing skills that are... Read More

The 5 Hindrances of the Mind: Are They Blocking Your Self-Esteem?

The issue of self-esteem is perhaps one of the greatest... Read More

What?s the Problem: Introducing Solution Focus Pt 1

Solution Focus is the brain child of Insoo Kim Berg... Read More

Intro to Being an ADHD Parent

In my fifteen years of private practice working with children... Read More

Human Psychological Issues in the Recruitment of Suicide Bombers

Swedish Scientists did a study and found that young men... Read More

Fairies and Mental Health

Schizophrenics hallucinate alternate realities. People who claim to have been... Read More

Hypnotic Myths

Even though hypnosis has been around officially since the 1700s... Read More

Traumas as Social Interactions

("He" in this text - to mean "He" or "She").We... Read More

Short Story: The Next Level of Humanity

"Hey Mac, have you ever been thinking of someone and... Read More

On Empathy

The Encyclopaedia Britannica (1999 edition) defines empathy as:"The ability to... Read More

Robotic Bonding Thru Human First Love Memory Replication

Many Science Fiction authors have discussed in many works the... Read More