Deprecated: mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /home/a26f9f83/public_html/articles/includes/config.php on line 159
Creatine: More than a Sports Nutrition Supplement > NetSparsh - Viral Content you Love & Share

Creatine: More than a Sports Nutrition Supplement

Although creatine offers an array of benefits, most people think of it simply as a supplement that bodybuilders and other athletes use to gain strength and muscle mass. Nothing could be further from the truth.

A substantial body of research has found that creatine may have a wide variety of uses. In fact, creatine is being studied as a supplement that may help with diseases affecting the neuromuscular system, such as muscular dystrophy (MD).

Recent studies suggest creatine may have therapeutic applications in aging populations for wasting syndromes, muscle atrophy, fatigue, gyrate atrophy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and other brain pathologies. Several studies have shown creatine can reduce cholesterol by up to 15% and it has been used to correct certain inborn errors of metabolism, such as in people born without the enzyme(s) responsible for making creatine.

Some studies have found that creatine may increase growth hormone production.

What is creatine?

Creatine is formed in the human body from the amino acids methionine, glycine and arginine. The average person's body contains approximately 120 grams of creatine stored as creatine phosphate. Certain foods such as beef, herring and salmon, are fairly high in creatine.

However, a person would have to eat pounds of these foods daily to equal what can be obtained in one teaspoon of powdered creatine.

Creatine is directly related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is formed in the powerhouses of the cell, the mitochondria. ATP is often referred to as the "universal energy molecule" used by every cell in our bodies. An increase in oxidative stress coupled with a cell's inability to produce essential energy molecules such as ATP, is a hallmark of the aging cell and is found in many disease states.

Key factors in maintaining health are the ability to: (a) prevent mitochondrial damage to DNA caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and (b) prevent the decline in ATP synthesis, which reduces whole body ATP levels. It would appear that maintaining antioxidant status (in particular intra-cellular glutathione) and ATP levels are essential in fighting the aging process.

It is interesting to note that many of the most promising anti-aging nutrients such as CoQ10, NAD, acetyl-l-carnitine and lipoic acid are all taken to maintain the ability of the mitochondria to produce high energy compounds such as ATP and reduce oxidative stress.

The ability of a cell to do work is directly related to its ATP status and the health of the mitochondria. Heart tissue, neurons in the brain and other highly active tissues are very sensitive to this system. Even small changes in ATP can have profound effects on the tissues' ability to function properly.

Of all the nutritional supplements available to us currently, creatine appears to be the most effective for maintaining or raising ATP levels.

How does creatine work?

In a nutshell, creatine works to help generate energy. When ATP loses a phosphate molecule and becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP), it must be converted back to ATP to produce energy. Creatine is stored in the human body as creatine phosphate (CP) also called phosphocreatine.

When ATP is depleted, it can be recharged by CP. That is, CP donates a phosphate molecule to the ADP, making it ATP again. An increased pool of CP means faster and greater recharging of ATP, which means more work can be performed.

This is why creatine has been so successful for athletes. For short-duration explosive sports, such as sprinting, weight lifting and other anaerobic endeavors, ATP is the energy system used.

To date, research has shown that ingesting creatine can increase the total body pool of CP which leads to greater generation of energy for anaerobic forms of exercise, such as weight training and sprinting. Other effects of creatine may be increases in protein synthesis and increased cell hydration.

Creatine has had spotty results in affecting performance in endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and long distance running, with some studies showing no positive effects on performance in endurance athletes.

Whether or not the failure of creatine to improve performance in endurance athletes was due to the nature of the sport or the design of the studies is still being debated.

Creatine can be found in the form of creatine monohydrate, creatine citrate, creatine phosphate, creatine-magnesium chelate and even liquid versions.

However, the vast majority of research to date showing creatine to have positive effects on pathologies, muscle mass and performance used the monohydrate form. Creatine monohydrate is over 90% absorbable. What follows is a review of some of the more interesting and promising research studies with creatine.

Creatine and neuromuscular diseases

One of the most promising areas of research with creatine is its effect on neuromuscular diseases such as MD. One study looked at the safety and efficacy of creatine monohydrate in various types of muscular dystrophies using a double blind, crossover trial.

Thirty-six patients (12 patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, 10 patients with Becker dystrophy, eight patients with Duchenne dystrophy and six patients with sarcoglycan-deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy) were randomized to receive creatine or placebo for eight weeks.

The researchers found there was a "mild but significant improvement" in muscle strength in all groups. The study also found a general improvement in the patients' daily-life activities as demonstrated by improved scores in the Medical Research Council scales and the Neuromuscular Symptom scale. Creatine was well tolerated throughout the study period, according to the researchers.1

Another group of researchers fed creatine monohydrate to people with neuromuscular disease at 10 grams per day for five days, then reduced the dose to 5 grams per day for five days.

The first study used 81 people and was followed by a single-blinded study of 21 people.

In both studies, body weight, handgrip, dorsiflexion and knee extensor strength were measured before and after treatment. The researchers found "Creatine administration increased all measured indices in both studies." Short-term creatine monohydrate increased high-intensity strength significantly in patients with neuromuscular disease.2

There have also been many clinical observations by physicians that creatine improves the strength, functionality and symptomology of people with various diseases of the neuromuscular system.

Creatine and neurological protection/brain injury

If there is one place creatine really shines, it's in protecting the brain from various forms of neurological injury and stress. A growing number of studies have found that creatine can protect the brain from neurotoxic agents, certain forms of injury and other insults.

Several in vitro studies found that neurons exposed to either glutamate or beta-amyloid (both highly toxic to neurons and involved in various neurological diseases) were protected when exposed to creatine.3 The researchers hypothesized that "? cells supplemented with the precursor creatine make more phosphocreatine (PCr) and create larger energy reserves with consequent neuroprotection against stressors."

More recent studies, in vitro and in vivo in animals, have found creatine to be highly neuroprotective against other neurotoxic agents such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and malonate.4 Another study found that feeding rats creatine helped protect them against tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which produces parkinsonism in animals through impaired energy production.

The results were impressive enough for these researchers to conclude, "These results further implicate metabolic dysfunction in MPTP neurotoxicity and suggest a novel therapeutic approach, which may have applicability in Parkinson's disease."5 Other studies have found creatine protected neurons from ischemic (low oxygen) damage as is often seen after strokes or injuries.6

Yet more studies have found creatine may play a therapeutic and or protective role in Huntington's disease7, 8 as well as ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).9 This study found that "? oral administration of creatine produced a dose-dependent improvement in motor performance and extended survival in G93A transgenic mice, and it protected mice from loss of both motor neurons and substantia nigra neurons at 120 days of age.

Creatine administration protected G93A transgenic mice from increases in biochemical indices of oxidative damage. Therefore, creatine administration may be a new therapeutic strategy for ALS." Amazingly, this is only the tip of the iceberg showing creatine may have therapeutic uses for a wide range of neurological disease as well as injuries to the brain.

One researcher who has looked at the effects of creatine commented, "This food supplement may provide clues to the mechanisms responsible for neuronal loss after traumatic brain injury and may find use as a neuroprotective agent against acute and delayed neurodegenerative processes."

Creatine and heart function

Because it is known that heart cells are dependent on adequate levels of ATP to function properly, and that cardiac creatine levels are depressed in chronic heart failure, researchers have looked at supplemental creatine to improve heart function and overall symptomology in certain forms of heart disease.

It is well known that people suffering from chronic heart failure have limited endurance, strength and tire easily, which greatly limits their ability to function in everyday life. Using a double blind, placebo-controlled design, 17 patients aged 43 to 70 years with an ejection fraction

In The News:

This RSS feed URL is deprecated, please update. New URLs can be found in the footers at https://news.google.com/news

Family Health News supplements coming to AmeriMark
PR Newswire (press release)
BOCA RATON, Fla., June 21, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Family Health News, an outlet for nutritional supplements reviews, is also a longtime producer of supplements and its bringing its popular colon cleanser, Colosan, as well as the rest of its wide and ...


Express.co.uk

High blood pressure diet: Prevent hypertension with reishi supplements
Express.co.uk
Hypertensive patients could enhance their red reishi supplements by boosting their vitamin C intake, said Brewer. Top vitamin C foods include guava, red pepper and kiwi fruit. Aim for 500mg of reishi extract, two to three times a day, she added. Take ...


One-third of children, teens use dietary supplements
Healio
Approximately one-third of all children and teenagers use dietary supplements, including multivitamins, researchers said. Additionally, the use of alternative medicines, such as melatonin supplements for insomnia, has nearly doubled. These products are ...


Yahoo News

Use of so-called 'alternative' supplements doubled in teens between 2003 and 2014: Study
Yahoo News
The use of so-called "alternative" supplements in kids and teens doubled between 2003 and 2014, according the a new study. About a third of all children and teens take supplements, mostly vitamins, which was consistent between 2003 and 2014.


menshealth.com

Do Probiotic Supplements Have Any Health Benefits?
menshealth.com
In response to the craze, pharmacy and health food store shelves are exploding with probiotic supplements. But with so many options, how do you know which products work best? And do you even need to take probiotic supplements for overall gut health in ...


Moringa Wellness brings its exclusive moringa leaf health foods and supplements to StackedNutrition.com
PR Newswire (press release)
BOCA RATON, Fla., June 21, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- South African supplement and natural foods company Moringa Wellness will soon debut its products, infused with the company's patented Moringex Moringa extract, to health and wellness e-commerce site ...


NutraIngredients.com

Hangovers and sleepless nights? Biohacking startup develops sachet supplements for 'daily problems'
NutraIngredients.com
Established in 2014, BioHacks launched its sachet supplement Hang & Over in 2016 after around six months of development. Made from a blend of ginseng, prickly pear, electrolytes, amino acids and a host of vitamins and minerals, the 9g sachet can be ...


Express.co.uk

Stomach bloating: Four supplements to help stop an uncomfortable belly and excess wind
Express.co.uk
The first, is friendly or 'good' bacteria supplements. The high street health shop says these can aid digestion and help contract the negative effects of bad bacteria in your gut. It adds: “Best of all, numerous studies have shown they may help ease ...


Care2.com

Should You Take Iodine Supplements During Pregnancy?
Care2.com
Because iodine is particularly important for fetal brain development, there's a recommendation that “all US women who are pregnant, lactating, or even planning a pregnancy should ingest dietary supplements containing 150 mcg of potassium iodide per day ...

Google News

The Myths and Facts of Vitamin D and Sun Exposure

Unverified reports claiming that unprotected, intentional sun exposure is necessary... Read More

The Immune-Boosting Power of Colostrum

Bovine Colostrum is the form of "milk" taken from dairy... Read More

The Benefits of Whey Protein

The benefits of whey protein are so numerous and apply... Read More

Pulling The Roots Of Disease

"Anybody who tells you that disease has only one cause,... Read More

When Your Body Lacks Vitamins

The body needs a minimum amount of vitamins and minerals... Read More

Nitric Oxide Supplement

Nitric oxide supplement has many benefits and there are many... Read More

The Undercover Vitamin

There is a secret vitamin in the neighborhood, wandering around... Read More

Vitamin A ? The Glow-in-the-dark Vitamin

The ancient Egyptians had a cure for "night blindness". They... Read More

What to Look For In Selecting A High Quality Nutritional Supplement!

Have you ever purchased something thinking you had bought a... Read More

Why Supplements and Glyconutritionals?

Food is one of our most basic needs. However, in... Read More

Nutritional Vitamin Fiber Supplements ? Which One Is For You?

Nutritional vitamin fiber supplements come in a variety of types,... Read More

Vitamin B-1

Did you know that vitamin B-1 has two other widely... Read More

Fish Oils And A Plethora of Chronic Health Problems

I recently heard of an older couple that eats salmon... Read More

Vitamin Information for Health

Vitamin C may be the most famous vitamin. Tens of... Read More

Popular Applications of Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid has received much press lately as a natural... Read More

Lower Cholesterol Naturally Using a Smorgasbord of Fiber

With a high cholesterol and heart disease in the family,... Read More

How Does Whey Protein Affect My Body?

Whey protein is available in supplement form and whey protein... Read More

News & Tips For Better Health, The Natural Way - A Health Supplement

BROCCOLI Good Healthy Food, for Natural Healing, Good Health and... Read More

Vitamin C May Improve Smokers Blood Circulation

A dose of vitamin C may give a quick boost... Read More

Garlic Can Kill Superbug - A Health Supplement

The Superbug MRSA which is becoming more common in Hospitals,... Read More

Increase Your Production Of Nitric Oxide

What Is Nitric Oxide (NO)?Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by... Read More

Shopping for Supplements -- Living Healthy and Saving Money

When it comes to personalized weight loss programs and their... Read More

Is Ephedra a Miracle Cure?

Americans are buzzing about the FDA's recent decision to reverse... Read More

Eat Well First Before You Take Your Vitamins

There is a huge market when it comes to vitamins.... Read More

Improve Your Mental Cognitive Abilities

The Connection Between Brain Inflammation, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's DiseaseThe evidence... Read More